The Liability for Criminal Attempts
- Arguments related to the liability for criminal attempts are divided into two categories. Some advocates of the concept of non-crime victims, as a principle of society, only those behaviors that negatively affect an actor or a person can legally prohibit supporters. However, most policymakers, even if they cannot legally punish a crime, are advised to do some practical reasons why they should not continue discussing. Victims of crimes against non-debate arise from the three properties of these crimes: (1) contains no injured party, except most police officers; (2) Many of them include the exchange of goods or services forbidden by the participants are highly desirable; And (3) is less than the damage caused to victims of serious crime and/or individual or social harm is believed to be less likely to try to prevent the occurrence.
Victims are not a crime; police are usually the injured party with something else; Just because the participants did not consider the victims of these crimes, who did not want to complain about police and criminal responsibility if they are afraid to complain. Moreover, such illegal actions, which are usually carried out privately and directly due to the absence of third parties, observe the actions of other people, or there may be sufficient incentive to complain to the police. Consequently, instead of identifying with victims of crime and crime victims, it would be difficult for police and public prosecutors to say that in this way forced to engage in serious abuse of applications. These include observation of captured and secret agents; Using false information that the criminal environment; And various forms of electronic compulsive physical surveillance (listening, listening, and bold look like the ceiling of public baths); And people, cars, houses, and other non-public places illegal searches and trials. Such methods, which raise objections from law enforcement and public respect for the law, lead to general penal sanctions.
Often without the observation of other people who are not victims of crime, some formal means have a very high probability of misconduct. Applying the law in a discriminatory way, or against people of unpopular groups; He is trying to bribe the law enforcement, And the security forces suspected of money or other favors to apply for business. This misconduct, the criminal justice institutions, especially the poor, and ethnic minorities, as well as the reduction of public respect and the cooperation among young people in the community who have social groups already gone.
Many of the victims of crime, provide greater demand for goods and services; The most striking example is the drug you want. Penalties, restrictions on supply to demand, others guilty of increasing the market value of land and labor, as a rule, to obtain a monopoly. This “crime rate” reduces the possibility of legal use of goods and promotes the growth of sophisticated and well-organized criminal groups. Organized crime mainly focuses on other areas of crime. High profits provide sufficient funds to provide capital to bribe government officials and diversification.
High prices also tend to hold back some of the participants who are not victims of a crime, these goods and services are trusted by the best (and morally can not be considered immoral) the fact that, combined with the limited offer and high prices, as well as maintaining high prices and high crime rates. High prices, in extreme cases such as heroin or cocaine addiction, participants must commit other offenses such as drug trafficking and theft to pay for illegal goods. Eventually, due to the high demand, many law-abiding citizens are expected to collaborate with these criminals who provide products and services. Society has called them so that there is a danger of this type of citizen seeing the guilty; So, in general, do less, cooperating with law enforcement and other most likely criminal forms of entry.