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Strain Theory By Robert Martin

Robert Martin proposed structural strain theory, and according to him, social structures and social pressures are put on people to achieve the desired goals and, therefore, lead individuals to commit crimes. There are five modes of adaptation: conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism, and rebellion.

Conformity is when cultural goals are achieved through approved means, such as someone who joined the political party because the family is aligned with that party, whereas innovation is achieving cultural goals with illegal methods. An example of innovation can be attaining a job by bribing someone. Ritualism adaption is about those who have decided to live their life the way they want and did not believe in the goals society has given them. An example of this adaptation can be majoring in medicine but opting for a sales job. Retreatism refers to the adaptation where people do not care about the goals society has set for them and prescribe methods to achieve the goals. A person who does not care about society’s standards, such as housing and jobs. Rebellions are those who have rejected both goals and means of making them. Terrorist groups can be an example of rebellions.

I agree with the author that voting is an institutionalized means of achieving cultural goals. Voting gives people the right to put the people who would work for the betterment of society. However, the right to vote should only be limited to the lawful citizen because if the voting right is given to the criminal, it will put the peace and harmony of the society at risk.

Conflict theory best describes the motivation of politically motivated riots because conflict theory looks at the difference in social class and class hierarchy. People who usually start the riots are from low socioeconomic backgrounds, and their voices do matter. Their method of raising their voice might be wrong, but their voices are strong and important.

Massachusetts does not have strict voting laws like many other states in the United States. However, Massachusetts does not have same-day registration for the voters, and you might also be required to show proof of identification before voting. Also, Massachusetts permits early voting for those who cannot be present on Election Day.



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