(Its a set written by Aaron,a researcher from the University of Tartu in Estonia , co-editor of some books. He mainly focused on the issues of philosophers and other critics as per their concerns towards emerging laws which came into existence during the times number of refugees entering Europe had increased.)
DEFINITION. This case emerged as a result of formed to the restrictions against refugees .Various laws and debates were formed in correspondence to this in the Europe. And in the United States where concern for nationality hademerged.As a result, WHAT DO WE OWE EACH OTHER in terms of their need, posession among other issues arose.Levine whois one of the Philosophers involved in this issue stood out to condemn this forms claiming it exclude human from others.
WHAT DO WE OWE EACH OTHER has been an issues in the minds of people,great philosophers for that matter.It is clear people are subjected to sufferings and fear in accordance to the restriction to live with others because thought not to be like them. These philosophers ,Emmanuel to specify ,emphasized that the sufferings of others is something other humans can prevent. Human are united as a community only if they are able to see the need of others and correspond to it. What exactly do we owe others if not protection ,care and provision per their sufferings?. This is an issue compelling humans from their being.
UNITED NATIONS has held a debate on nationality in correspondence to Refugees. Europe building boundaries to restricte refugees from entering.These two cases agreed upon are meant to reduce the number of refugees entering the mantinined countrys.For example Germany put empasy on fence boundaries due to Islamic states attacks assault of women in Germany creating fear of others. This affected people not related to the nationality of those natins thereby affecting them in terms of security and fear.However, Emmanuel Levines challenges people on the need of humanity.That we are defined by what we can do and how we treat other people. Thus seems not to be considered by the nationthe main concern is to reduce various attacks and fear suspected to bhavbe been as a result of the unkown welcomedin those nations
Levines,a philosopher whose family was killed by The Nazis duringbhis arrest,had defended humanity among human by emphasizing on the relations of one human to their abilty to see and provide for what others need and want.He emphasized thuis is three different ways both direct and indirect ways.The necessity iof helping others in accordance to the heart of hospitality as a need, the need of protecting others and seeing them as one or part of jus and finally pointing out dangers of nationality emphasizing that this shouldnt be used as a form of personal identity for by this, it creates hostility to other not included. These if not considered, will lead to increased human sufferings.He asserted it that Peace is primary to all but can onkly be showed as per how we welcome and treat refugees who are I need of our hosptialaity. He addede,God is the face of human,anything wwe do reflects what we really want for God.Welcoming and sharing what we have wioth others is what will in turn define us.
He uses Levinas views of concern and worries.Levina is a philosospher from Jewesh family in Kaunas born in 1906.He moved to france in 1923 and studied philosophy in Germany (1920).. He became popular during the 1930 for his stand of defending Husserls. He was drafted into the French army and later taken to prison by the Nazis bujt was not subjected into the camps.However,his family were killed. This urged motivated him to bring in the concept of ethical relations between human beings nd their ability to respond to the wants and needs of others.His assumptions are divided into different ways. DANGER OF NATIONALITY; Nationality is the result of identification as per how we differ and familiarized ourselves with others. This identification do exclude others making us believe others do not form p part of us hence excluding other people. Although it’s a unifying factor, He indirectly explained by pointing out GENERALIZATYION AND TOTALIZATION which compel one human from the other. Moreover, he put into account NECCESITY OF WELCOMING asserting God’s presence in the face illustrating human vulnerability. As that which defnes human only if one is able to protect and show hospitality to others Hospitality is the urge of welcoming others and giving them what they want and need.Though we may lack to guive to all,but atleast we are able to give what we can. PROTECTING OTHERS is another concern derived from his assumptions .Claiming that he possibility of living is based on what we give to others in correspondence to human sufferings.
NATURE AND DANGER OF NATIONALITY; Nationality is the result of identification as per how we differ and familiarized ourselves with others. According to Emmanuel Levines,People identifying themselves through nationality does exclude others making us believe others do not form part of us thus showing no concern for other humanity. Although it’s a unifying factor, Levinas goes ahead and mention the fact that GENERALIZATYION AND TOTALIZATION exists as a result of nationzlity.;People are generalized as one as per their nationality identifcation they are Totalized and viewed as one as per what distinguishes them from others. These two results into stereotyping descriptions of groups thereby producing a rift between one group to other. He went ahead and supported this by pointing it out that humanity is more of seeing other people as more of which category they belong to. One can be a british but is a father,husband and an inventor of technology. He says,one shouldn’t be defined by his nationality but rather by who they are.
I do disagree with Levines assumption on Nationality identification as promoting inhumanity in correspondence to what do we owe other. Reason being, Its a form of unity and what define people of a given nation as one . Patriost of a nation are united together despite their different cultures,politics ,language and traditions .If need be, Humanity can be implied among citizens through diplomacy and giving it a sharp concern during World organizational forums debates eg the United Nations meetings.Refugees is concern requiring debate especially now that it is highly rejected by various nations increasing harm to human existence.
According to him.human being is defined wjth what they can doto others as fqr as care and love is concerned. Hosting and creating conducive environment for others is what determines our personal identity. Language being a main mode opf communication,to Levina it shouldn’t be used as a labeling of who others are. It should be perceived as what makes the entire world as one. In failure to consider humanity in us, we are creating boundaries just like the physical boundaries and the barbared wired restrictuibg others from seeking for help from us.