Using examples from lectures and reading, discuss the ways that politics and religion intersect in ancient Asian empires. Provide details from three empires and make sure to provide archaeological examples, not just examples from written history
Ancient Asian Empires
There has always been the influence of politics and religion in the ways of governmental/ state or provincial systems. the examples of different ancient Asian empires explain how politics and religion played a role in their eras, and the history and archeological examples show the intersection of religion and politics.
The Gupta Empire
Between 320-550CE, the empire stretched across northern, central, and southern India. The political system during the era was well known, the vast kingdom was divided into smaller provinces, and for that purpose, administrative heads were appointed. The systems and processes of bureaucracy were kept as transparent; judicial torture was not followed and practiced. The system of taxes was there where taxes were collected to run the political and kingdom systems to keep the governance and the empire. The kings of the Gupta Empire believed in making a link and relationship between the communities they themselves were the followers of Vishnu. They never prevented other communities like followers of Jainism and Buddhism to practice their faith in their places. Gold and silver coins were issued to have a balance in the economy and to have a healthy economy. These coins give detail on the historical evolution of the styles of the Gupta Empire, and their impacts on religious art from the golden age of India. The coins used are a historical record detailing the evolution of the Gupta style.
This is considered as the golden age of China for its history in arts, politics, and technology. The centralized rule was retreated by introducing vassal principalities in some areas for the sake of political suitability. After this, the country was divided into feudal states; then it comes the Daoism era to keep the peace. The goal was to relieve society from harsh rules and regulations, wars, and conflicts within the state. The safe trade routes were established like the Silk road. The Han dynasty shows some archeological sites like tombs with painted walls, stony reliefs,s and decorated tiles from the collection of Chines pictorial art. Han dynasty started salt monopolies and iron extended itself through the commandery system.
The Chola dynasty
This is the longest ruling dynasty in the history of southern India. This dynasty has extensions from the island of Maldives to Andhra Pradesh. The Chola Dynasty has resulted in some great works like Tamil literature, and the zeal for building temples. They not only built temples for religious purposes but also for economic activities. The bureaucracy was established, and the government was centralized.
In short politics and religion intersect in ancient Asian empires that has being discussed and explained with the help of three ancient Asian empires Gupta empire, the Han dynasty, and the Chola dynasty.
3. How did writing develop differently in the Indus and in China? Make sure you discuss similarities as well as differences.
How did writing develop differently in the Indus and in China?
Writing is the procedure where you compose letters to shape a word, which shows emotion and feeling, and this writing is used as a tool and medium for communication. The origins of writing start from the earliest civilizations of Tigris and the Nile. Both civilizations Egyptian and the Sumerian (Iraq) changed and transformed the development of human beings. When it comes to evolutionary processes of writing in Indus and China, history tells us that the I Indus script is known as the earliest form of writing in the subcontinent and Chinese writing started in the early second millennium.
Before mentioning the history and writing the people used to make symbolic marks on different things like the bones and shell of a tortoise, these were not just part of the language, but they were a tool to communicate the ideas of people in the early ages. The Indus writings and Chinese writings both have had some similarities like they both used the forms of photographic writings, and they give a variety of clues to understand the functions of proto-writing. The historical study shows some similarities, but we cannot ignore the differences between these two well-known writing startups. There exist some differences like
The Indus scripts are only known in an archeological way; this is what we assume based on certainty. The association of writing is only liked by the elite classes who tried to record the transactions and record them. And it is also said that the writings were also used for the administrative purposes of the state or their own civilization. According to the research study, the Indus clay tags have also been found in the Mesopotamian region outside of the Indus valley civilization, and this shows how much people traveled for the reasons like trade. The reason that this Indus script declined is that the Indus valley civilization was in the decline. The script which was invented could not be expanded to the other parts of the sub-continent.
Chinese characters are the oldest and most continuously used system of writings in the world, which were invented by taking inspiration from nature like landscapes of earth, a world of animals, and the stars in the sky. The Chinese writings developed from the images mostly which were used to show a concept. The scripts made ways easier because the people could not also read, but they also understood the concepts, one of the negative impressions was it created a class system.
Through a sequence of examinations. I have provided an approach to study the possible relationship between Chinese and Indus the two ancient writing systems. I have concluded that these two systems are related closely and have at least a common origin