Academic Master


The Formation Of Biofilm

The biofilm formation allows collective cell colonies or colonies to be highly resistant to antibiotics (Muzny & Schwebke, 2015). The formation of biofilm in infectious diseases can make their treatment hard since they may require a high dose of medication for the infection to respond, and the infection becomes persistent.

The biofilm formation starts with free-floating microorganism attachment to the surface. It is said that the first biofilm colonist bacteria stick to a surface first by weak and reversible adhesion through hydrophobic effects And Van der Waals Forces (Muzny & Schwebke, 2015). When the colonist is not separated early, they anchor permanently by the use of structures of cell adhesion-like pili. Other bacterial species only attach to the existing colonist because of hydrophobicity.

In bacterial colonization, cells communicate by quorum-sensing products like N-acyl homoserine lactone. The moment colonization starts, a biofilm grows by an amalgamation of recruitment and cell division. The polysaccharide matrices enclose the bacterial biofilm. In the last stage of dispersion, the biofilm gets established and changes only in size and shape (Muzny & Schwebke, 2015).

In my view, hand sanitizers, through antibacterial, are not safe; people should always use old soaps and non-antibacterial ones except in a situation where they are the only option. The tendency to use hand sanitizer each time one touches doorknobs, elevator buttons, or dumbbells curbs enthusiasm. There are many reasons to always keep off these potential germ killers containing chemicals (Wang & Tian, 2015). The main reason is that they often contain triclosan, a substance often considered an obesogen, a substance that has the potential to cause body weight through disruption of the endocrine system of the body (Wang & Tian, 2015). Reduced exposure to this chemical can aid in preventing the potential chemical that is able to cause weight gain. To reduce the exposure, individuals need to use old soaps that don’t contain any antibacterial components and water where possible. However, in a situation where one cannot reach water and soap, it is safe to use these hand sanitizers or triclosan-free sanitizers.


Muzny, C. A., & Schwebke, J. R. (2015). Biofilms: an underappreciated mechanism of treatment failure and recurrence in vaginal infections. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 61(4), 601–606.

Wang, C.-F., & Tian, Y. (2015). Reproductive endocrine-disrupting effects of triclosan: Population exposure, present evidence, and potential mechanisms. Environmental Pollution, 206, 195–201.T



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