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Biology is the science of life. Biologists study the structure, function, growth, origin, evolution and distribution of living organisms.

Pathophysiology Summary for Pneumonia

This summary of the pathophysiology of Pneumonia in Victor Vitale includes the etiology of the illness, risk factors, clinical manifestations, and treatment options as the patient was admitted due to bilateral anterior/posterior lungs having crackle lung sounds in the upper and lower lobes. Referring to the patient’s condition, Pneumonia is a common respiratory infection that occurs when the lungs become inflamed due to an infectious agent such as viruses, bacteria,

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Cracking Cancer Article Analysis

Summary 1 – Cracking Cancer- The Nature of Things with David Suzuki (CBC) (Video) The video, i.e., a documentary, reveals the clinical trial of enrolled patients. It summarizes the balanced perspective of challenges and hopes in the life of a cancer patient. The new cancer therapy proclaims genome medicine as a new horizon for cancer treatment under the supervision of Dr. Adrian Lee, Director of the Women’s Cancer Research Center.

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Disorders of the Musculoskeletal System: Short Answer Problems – Session 10

Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) is a poorly understood chronic pain syndrome affecting over 45% of the American population. The nervous system has an amplified response to stimulation on both the ascending and descending paths, but we are poorly able to measure the disease with diagnostic testing.   What are the cardinal symptoms of FMS? The cardinal symptom FMS is known for is chronic pain above and below the waist, on both

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Renal Dysfunction: Short Answer Problems- Session 9

Acute Renal Failure (ARF) can be categorized into three stages. Please define and give an example of each stage. Pre-renal The stage of pre-renal is defined as the condition that occurs in almost 60-70 % of acute renal failure cases when the blood supply to the kidneys is compromised that causes severe burns, reduced blood pressure in kidneys as well as the entire body, excessive bleeding, severe dehydration, and may

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Short Answer Problems – Session 8

Gastro-esophageal reflux is a common problem, creating damage and inflammation from acid in the esophagus for both infants and adults. What is the goal of treatment of GERD in an adult? The goals of treatment of Gastro-esophageal reflux disease in an adult include the prevention of relapse of esophagitis or mucosal lesions, healing of the esophageal lining, and prevention of strictures ulcerations that may cause bleeding. An adult may experience

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Case Study: Health Scenario of Ms. Busy having Osteoarthritis

The objective of this paper is to analyze the health scenario of Ms. Busy who is apparently having osteoarthritis and is not able to do most of her chores after retirement from the fast-food industry. Upon physical exam, three signs that are analyzed are that she weighs 160lbs and is 5 feet 6 inches which indicates that she is overweight, suggestive of osteoarthritis. The consumption of e-cigarettes and alcohol has

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Hyperparathyroidism, Causes and Treatment

Etiology- What causes this disease? The etiology of Hyperparathyroidism disease is the deficiency or low levels of parathyroid hormone that leads to an increased level of phosphate and a low level of calcium in the human blood. The majority of the cases of hyperparathyroidism are caused after the surgery for malignant and benign thyroid disorders and post-surgery for neck and head cancers. Moreover, neurosurgical etiologies of hyperparathyroidism include autoimmune destruction

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Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

Introduction Inflammatory Bowel Disease or IBD is an umbrella term that refers to a group of inflammatory disorders which mainly affect the intestine when the immune system attacks a harmless bacteria or virus in the gut eventually leading to bowel injury that is caused due to inflammation in the intestinal tract. Symptoms of IBD and related diseases include diarrhea, weight loss, abdominal cramps, iron deficiency, fever, and anemia. The major

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Colon Cancer and its Diagnostic

Etiology- What causes this disease? This cancerous disease begins in the final part of the digestive tract in the large intestine of a person called the colon. There are many possible reasons that can cause colon cancer including years of obesity, type II diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), etc. If a person has ever had Crohn’s disease (a chronic abnormal immune response that affects the digestive system) or ulcerative colitis

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From Raw Data to Wellness Wisdom: Uploading and Interpreting Your DNA Health Report

Within the enormous avenues for self-discovery, a personalized trip into your genetic makeup can be revealed with the help of your DNA. The rapidly expanding field of genetic testing has made it possible to gain previously unattainable insights into your family history, general health, and well-being. What if your DNA contained a roadmap that provided a personalized account of your life? The purpose of this investigation is to shed light on

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RNA and DNA

RNA Ribonucleic acid, or RNA, is a long, single-stranded chain of nucleic acid cells that contains proteins. Phosphate groups and the sugar ribose make up the backbone of RNA molecules (Lambert, 2001). RNA is an example of a cell chain that transports the genetic information of numerous viruses from the cell to the cytoplasm. All living cells include the macromolecule RNA, which is critical to the functioning of the cell.

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Asthma Pathophysiology

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory condition of respiratory passageways, particularly the mucosa, causing narrowing the respiratory passaging ways, which can ultimately cause difficulty in breathing. It may cause constriction of pulmonary smooth muscles and periods of bronchoconstriction, i.e., bronchial hyperactivity. Two main types of asthma exist in respective patients: allergic and non-allergic. In both categories, bronchial hyperactivity is evident in all cases (Fricker et al., 2020). Multiple asthma symptoms include

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Photosynthesis and Respiration: Comparison of functionalities

Generally, the biological process of respiration and photosynthesis work through mutual relationships. However, there are differences between the biological process of photosynthesis and respiration in terms of their functionality. This essay tends to unveil the comparative elements of photosynthesis and respiration in terms of their functionality. Photosynthesis is a biological process that takes place only in phototrophs (all green plants and some bacteria) to make energy. Photosynthesis is known as

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Importance of Diffusion & Osmosis in Our Life

Diffusion is the movement of a substance down the concentration gradient; moving from a higher concentration region to a lower concentration. Using a bag made up of a semi-permeable dialysis membrane, the first experiment focuses on the process of diffusion. A solution of glucose and starch is placed inside the dialysis bag. With the help of test tape, the presence of glucose is established. Later, a solution of iodine potassium

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Bioethical Challenge: “Surrogate Motherhood Regulations, Olympia State, 2021”.

Surrogate Motherhood Regulations, Olympia State, 2021 This is a legal statute to regulate surrogacy in the state according to law and secure the parties’ judicial rights involved herewith. Short title, extent and commencement: These regulations may be called “Surrogate Motherhood Regulations, Olympia State, 2021”. These regulations extend to the whole state as and where required to be acted upon and will come into implementation at once. Definitions: In these regulations: “State”

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An Analysis of Bioethical Challenges in the Case of Armando Dimas

Case Study: Summary  Armando Dimas is a Latin American who has been shot in the neck and the left temple (damaged the skull). After going to an emergency of a local hospital, Armando Dimas has been taken to Hermann Hospital. At the hospital, Armando is examined by Dr. MacDougall. After examining the gunshot wounds and the medical condition of Armando Dimas, the medical staff including Dr. MacDougall have made the

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BIOCHEMICAL TESTS- Test for Starch, Reducing Sugars, non-Reducing Sugars, Proteins, Lipids

Biochemical Tests The biochemical tests conducted in this lab are to test the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Three types of carbohydrates will be tested namely starch, reducing sugar (glucose), and non-reducing sugar (sucrose). The test for checking the presence of starch is demonstrated first. Add iodine which is of brownish-orange color to a sample of starch in a test tube. As a result, the solution would turn bluish-black

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Transportation Processes in a Mammalian Cell

The transportation of molecules or substances in a mammalian cell depends upon the permeability of molecules/ substance across the phospholipid bilayer membrane. The plasma membrane is very permeable; therefore, it lets several materials to arrive and exit the cell while preventing the movement of others that might be harmful altogether. This selectivity is central to the cell’s survival as a cell that is unable to sustain itself may be destroyed.

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Embryo research to reduce need for in vitro fertilization raises ethical concerns

Embryo Research Introduction Bioethical guidelines are used to define the moral boundaries of medical practice and research. The integration of these principles is imperative to ensure that treatments and research do not involve malpractices. This is especially important when dealing with human subjects. Often researchers conduct studies that may bring benefit to society and help in the development of the scientific field. However, not all studies are free of bioethical

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Bioethical Issues Related to COVID-19

Introduction In medical science, one of the most important aspects is that of bioethics which must be integrated into day-to-day practice to guide an ethical pathway that may always not be clearly outlined. These ethical endeavors are often challenged in case of emergencies and crises, thereby testing the general rules and principles of ethics. In such emergency scenarios where the magnitude of impact is at a large scale, medical professionals

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