Academic Master


Professional Accountability

Identify a nursing theory that has influenced your values and goals.

“Dorothea Orem’s Self-Care Deficit theory” influences my goals and values. The theory focuses on the individual’s capacity to administer self-care to maintain a healthy life and well-being (Gonzalo, 2021). This model of practice is adopted by many professionals, whether consciously or unconsciously. Patient care starts through an assessment of health history which may include several areas such as hygiene, toileting, ability to feed, and to carry out daily life activities among others. Using this data, nurses create a care plan which is administered and evaluated. My practice fits this model as I aim to identify the care deficit areas for the patient and to assist them in adjusting to the new normal after suffering from a health condition. I talk to my patients to gather data and identify the high-priority areas. After identification, I aim to address these by reducing dependence and enabling patients to perform self-care.

Identify the contributions of two historical nursing figures in the nineteenth or twentieth century.

Betty Neuman and Dorothea Orem contributed to the development of patient care by presenting new ideas. Neuman put forth the “Neuman Systems Model” that considers living beings as open systems that interact not only with one another but also with the environment. These environmental stressors often contribute to the progression of the illness. It is, therefore, imperative that these stressors are addressed to maintain the physical and mental health of the patient. Her model of optimal wellness seeks to prevent injury to the system whereas Orem’s theory aims to assist patients to adjust to the new normal by making them autonomous in self-care (Ahmadi & Sadeghi, 2017; Gonzalo, 2021). Personally, my practice is influenced by the two as my care plan involves setting goals and assisting patients to adjust to post-illness conditions. I try to comfort my patients and address any environmental stressors that may cause further harm to them.

 Explain the functional differences between the State Board of Nursing and the American Nurses Association (ANA).

The “State Board of Nursing” monitors the administrative aspects of nurse licensing. The major functions include an evaluation of the licensure applications, issuance and renewal of license, evaluating compliance to state laws, and reprimanding malpractice (Nurse Journal Staff, 2021). In contrast, the ANA represents more than four million professionals and it functions to safeguard the rights of nurses. It offers chances of career advancement through networking and access to educational resources (ANA, 2021). The two associations influence my practice as I continually strive to remain updated through education to maintain my practicing license. I remain aware of the accountability associated with my field and follow the code of ethics that is in place by the ANA. In Texas, continuing education is required for the renewal of an active license. The license is renewed every two years on the completion of mandated 20 hours of education and 2 hours of contact time. A failure to maintain the license requirements may result in fines, license suspension, or license revocation (Texas Board of Nursing, 2021). The compact and non-compact license regulates nurses’ practices in different states under a singular license. To obtain a compact license, a nurse must be a resident of that state however, this license is not acceptable in states that do not participate in the nursing compact.

Discuss the functional differences between the Food and Drug Administration and the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (see the web links below).

The “Food and Drug Administration (FDA)” monitors the regulation of marketing and usage of medical products whereas the “Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services (CMS)” control the reimbursement of healthcare services and products for Medicare and Medicaid (Woodcock, 2009). The FDA regulates personal practice through the provision of adequate equipment for patient care whereas CMS curtails the provision of unnecessary treatment costs for the patients. The rising cost of healthcare often results in patients opting for alternative therapies. As a nurse, it is my responsibility to carry out patient advocacy. Ensuring that the alternative therapy requested by the patient is safe, I should help the patient in their decision and promote patient care and autonomy.

Discuss the purposes of the Nurse Practice Act in your state and its impact on your professional practice.

The “Nurse Practice Act (NPA)” of Texas creates the board of nurses (BON) and outlines its responsibility in the regulation of education, license provision, and practice. It defines the legal parameters and includes the definition of nursing, the power structure of BON, educational standards, the scope of practice, licensure requirements, and disciplinary actions among others. This Act provides the necessary guidelines for nurses like me and acts as a standard for practice. Registered nurses in Texas observe, assess, intervene, evaluate, rehabilitate, and care for the patients. Their scope of practice does not include medical diagnosis or prescription of therapy, rather they administer the treatment outlined by the physicians. Delegation is defined as a multifaceted process that authorizes an “unlicensed person” to carry out nursing service. The accountability of the task remains with the one delegating it therefore certain criteria must be considered before task delegation (Texas Board of Nursing, 2021).

Apply each of the following roles to your professional practice:

As a nurse, I play various roles such as that of a scientist, detective, and manager of the healing environment. As a scientist, I continuously research the new methods of care and evaluate their impact. As a detective, I keep probing the patients to know more about their health condition and any environmental stressors that may aggravate it. While as a manager of the healing environment, I work to ensure that the patient is comfortable and their surrounding is free of any factors that may cause them physical or mental discomfort, and hinder their recovery process.

Identify two provisions from the American Nurses Association (ANA) Code of Ethics (see web link below).

According to provision number three nurses promote, advocate for, and protect the health, rights, and safety of the patients. Personally, this provision makes me responsible to protect the rights of my patients and ensure their health and safety. Educating patients about their choice of alternative therapy is an example of ensuring their health and safety. Provision four outlines the authority, accountability, and responsibility of nurses along with their role in making decisions and taking actions that promote optimal health care. Personally, this provision has influenced my practice as I understand that responsibility comes with accountability. My patients always come first and decisions are taken for safeguarding their health. A common nursing error in clinical practice is medication errors. Under provision three, all such errors must be fully disclosed. Such disclosure is essential for the protection of the health and safety of patients. Moreover, it also protects the right of patients to have full information about the treatment provided. Reporting medication errors is also closely aligned with the accountability highlighted in provision four. Once the error is identified and reported, actions can be taken to rectify the situation to promote health. It instills a greater sense of responsibility for future practices (ANA, 2015).

Identify four leadership qualities or traits that represent excellence in nursing.

The leadership qualities that promote excellence in nursing include strong communication, emotional intelligence, integrity, and critical thinking among others (Dyess, Sherman, Pratt, & Chiang-Hanisko, 2016). Nurses communicate with the patients and the interdisciplinary team. Effective communication, therefore, is the key. It helps in gathering the required information from patients, reduces anxiety, and brings them comfort. It also ensures relaying correct information within the team and eliminates misunderstandings. Displaying emotional intelligence is essential to manage the stressors faced when dealing with the patients and overcoming the challenges as a team. The integrity of character enables nurses to make the right choice at the patient’s bedside and to adapt and learn. It also helps in creating a conducive environment when working within teams by upholding ethical values. Critical thinking is the most important skill as nurses are continuously planning, analyzing, and evaluating decisions either at the bedside or within a team. The work environment must be conducive and aim to foster leadership, decision-making, and professional development. Highlighting leadership attributes through a bulletin board displayed in the nurses’ lounge is one of the strategies that is currently being employed. Although major decisions are taken through collective input, autonomy is provided to nurses which develop decision-making skills. Lastly, professional development is stressed through networking, mentoring, seminars, and conferences.


Ahmadi, Z., & Sadeghi, T. (2017). Application of the Betty Neuman systems model in the nursing care of patients/clients with multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis Journal – Experimental, Translational and Clinical, 3(3).

ANA. (2015). Code of Ethics for Nurses. Silver Spring, Maryland: American Nurses Association.

ANA. (2021). About ANA. Retrieved from American Nurses Association:

Dyess, S., Sherman, R., Pratt, B., & Chiang-Hanisko, L. (2016). Growing nurse leaders: Their perspectives on nursing leadership and today’s practice environment. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 21(1).

Gonzalo, A. (2021). Dorothea Orem: Self-Care Deficit Theory. Retrieved from Nurseslabs:

Nurse Journal Staff. (2021). Nursing Regulatory Bodies Explained. Retrieved from NurseJournal :

Texas Board of Nursing. (2021). Licensure renewal. Retrieved from Texas Board of Nursing:

Texas Board of Nursing. (2021). Practice – Registered Nurse Scope of Practice. Retrieved from Texas Board of Nursing:

Woodcock, J. (2009). Leadership Commitments to Improve Value in Healthcare: Finding Common Ground: Workshop Summary. Washington DC: Institute of Medicine (US) Roundtable on Evidence-Based Medicine.



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