Disorders caused by microorganisms such as virus, fungi, bacteria or parasites are known as infectious diseases. These organisms live in or on our bodies. They are usually helpful and harmless. But only one percent of these microorganisms cause disease. Infectious disease are the major cause of illness, impermanence and disability worldwide (Patel). These infectious diseases spread through different mediums like through blood, air, water or semen. Bacteria, virus and fungi are three categories of microorganisms. The infections caused by these are very different, their way of spreading, symptoms, control and prevention all differs.
Bacterial infections caused when bacteria enter the body, take up nutrients from the host tissues, secretes poisonous toxins and then kills the host cell and starts replication. Bacterial infections are cured by antibiotics which kills or inhibit the growth of bacteria. A sore throat, Food poisoning are the examples of bacterial infections. Viral infections occur when the virus enters into the cell and hijacks the machinery of the host cell to make more viruses. The viral infections are through direct contact with infected person or surface. These infections happen by antiviral medicines and vaccinations which makes the immune system strong. HIV/Aids and smallpox are the examples of viral infections. Fungal infections occur when invading fungus starts spreading on any part of the body, and the immune system is unable to handle it. When the spore is inhaled or lands on or in the human body and finds a suitable environment, it starts to grow. Proper hygiene and a good diet cure fungal infections. Athlete’s foot and yeast infection are its common types.
Controlling and Preventing the Spread of Infection
People use a large variety of methods for controlling and preventing the spread of infections caused by a different microorganism. Methods differ depending upon the microorganism causing the infection. The most prominent methods for controlling and preventing are the usage of drugs and vaccines. Antibiotics and antiviral drugs are used after the occurrence of disease and immunisation is used before the occurrence of a disease to make the immune system strong. Drug usage and immunisation are effective methods, but with the passage of time, microorganisms are getting immune to these drugs. New drugs are being made to overcome this issue. Although the use of drugs and immunisation is very effective, there is a possibility that shortly this method will fail.
In such circumstances prevention of the spread of disease is more suitable then controlling it. For this hygiene practice is most appropriate. Keeping the environment and body clean is very effective, it prevents the spread of diseases as most infectious diseases spread through direct contact. Although this is an effective method, it cannot be used as the only method for controlling and preventions as microorganisms will still be present and an infection can occur through the slightest exposure to them. Isolation is usually used when a person is suffering from contagious bacterial or viral disease; this is used to prevent the spread of infection to other people. This process is effective to some extent, but there are many drawbacks. Method of isolation should be used only when no other method of control is applicable, as this method is usually uncomfortable for the patient, time-consuming and costly. Hence this method can also be not used as the only method for controlling and preventing of diseases.
The Signs and Symptoms of Infectious Diseases
|Diphtheria (bacterial)||Saliva and mucus
Objects of an infected person
|Ebola (Viral)||Direct contact with blood, body fluids and tissues of an infected person||
|Athlete’s foot||Sweaty feet, sharing towel or socks of an infected person. Minor skin or nail injury||