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Method to Control and Prevent the Spread of Infection

Infectious Diseases

Disorders caused by microorganisms such as viruses, fungi, bacteria, or parasites are known as infectious diseases. These organisms live in or on our bodies. They are usually helpful and harmless. However, only one percent of these microorganisms cause disease. Infectious diseases are the major cause of illness, impermanence, and disability worldwide (Patel). These infectious diseases spread through different mediums, such as blood, air, water, or semen. Bacteria, viruses, and fungi are three categories of microorganisms. The infections caused by these are very different; their way of spreading, symptoms, control, and prevention all differ.

Bacterial infections are caused when bacteria enter the body, take up nutrients from the host tissues, secrete poisonous toxins, and then kill the host cell and start replication. Bacterial infections are cured by antibiotics, which kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. A sore throat and food poisoning are examples of bacterial infections. Viral infections occur when the virus enters the cell and hijacks the machinery of the host cell to make more viruses. Viral infections occur through direct contact with an infected person or surface. These infections happen by antiviral medicines and vaccinations, which make the immune system strong. HIV/Aids and smallpox are examples of viral infections. Fungal infections occur when an invading fungus starts spreading on any part of the body, and the immune system is unable to handle it. When the spore is inhaled or lands on or in the human body and finds a suitable environment, it starts to grow. Proper hygiene and a good diet cure fungal infections. Athlete’s foot and yeast infection are its common types.

Controlling and Preventing the Spread of Infection

People use a large variety of methods for controlling and preventing the spread of infections caused by different microorganisms. Methods differ depending on the microorganism causing the infection. The most prominent methods for controlling and preventing are the usage of drugs and vaccines. Antibiotics and antiviral drugs are used after the occurrence of the disease, and immunization is used before the occurrence of the disease to strengthen the immune system. Drug usage and immunization are effective methods, but with the passage of time, microorganisms are becoming immune to these drugs. New drugs are being made to overcome this issue. Although the use of drugs and immunization is very effective, there is a possibility that this method will fail shortly.

In such circumstances, prevention of the spread of disease is more suitable than controlling it. For this, hygiene practice is most appropriate. Keeping the environment and body clean is very effective, it prevents the spread of diseases as most infectious diseases spread through direct contact. Although this is an effective method, it cannot be used as the only method for controlling and prevention as microorganisms will still be present, and an infection can occur through the slightest exposure to them. Isolation is usually used when a person is suffering from a contagious bacterial or viral disease; this is used to prevent the spread of infection to other people. This process is effective to some extent, but there are many drawbacks. Method of isolation should be used only when no other method of control is applicable, as this method is usually uncomfortable for the patient, time-consuming, and costly. Hence, this method can also not be used as the only method for controlling and preventing diseases.

The Signs and Symptoms of Infectious Diseases

Disease Causes Symptoms
Diphtheria (bacterial) Saliva and mucus

Infected skin

Objects of an infected person

  • Fever
  • A sore throat
  • Swollen glands in the neck
Ebola (Viral) Direct contact with blood, body fluids, and tissues of an infected person
  • Fever
  • A headache
  • Vomiting
Athlete’s foot Sweaty feet, sharing towel or socks of an infected person. Minor skin or nail injury
  • Itching
  • Blisters
  • Raw skin

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