Williams C Williams is the American poet, writer and the physician. He was closely associated with the imagism and modernism. He was of the view that poetry should be written in a different and non-conventional form. He propagated that poetry must conform to the democratic values which ensure the freedom and the free verse. The new verse in a conscious form will provide the strength to the message of the poem. The poet was concerned with the US culture and society which drive him to articulate democratic values through his poetry. The poems of Mariana Moore also provides the reformative and free verse structure. The American poets have positively engaged in Americanisation through their writings.
In ‘To the snail’ Mariana Moore has chosen the snail which is different from the actual snail. The language and the form used by the writer employs a dissimilar ending. The poetess has also exemplified that how a poem should be written. The fundamental issue with any poetry is the construction of form and style in which writer try to convey the message. The fundamental issue according to the Moore poem should address the reformative and non-conventional style of the poem. The snail having no feet is the one way of ending the poem, or it can be ended without any conclusion. Free verse provides the readers to easily analyse the poem without having any complexity in understanding purpose and surface of the poem.
A very fine poetic style is used by the Moore, which speaks of the cultural voices and the opinions by concealing her disapproval of the rules of poetry (Azambuja, 2015). She implied humorous image in her poem. The entire poem moves along snail’s antennas because the lines go from the long to shorter and short. The style of the poem reveals that there could be the number of ways to express the poetic ideas and messages. It is not the law or the regulation to keep up with one or traditional style of writing the poetry. William C Williams was also propagating the same view that things should be express in a different style and imagery. Similarly, Moore provides us with the example that how much is the rewarding experiencing with the innovative language and its forms.
More was a tireless and unforgiving writer of his poem. Her works and the collection of poems unfolded the two different angles of her thoughts. One view holds the sacrosanct, while the second move for the restoration (Moore, 2017). She left her poem unrevised. The poem is the best example of the zoological allegories. The fable was always her fine and significant mental spaces. It let her collaborate the beautiful mixture of visual description and the moral judgment. The poem of the Moore introduced the new kind of the modesty which is also linked with the psychological contractility. She forces her reader to watch the snail and notice the pliable and the perceptive tentacles. The two short horns at the front of the head and two sensitive behind requires the attention of the reader.
The snail is primarily sensitive to its environment and the same happens with the modest and noble person. The biological contractility is by no means a symbol of modesty, however, the writer as acutely implies the connection and convey her message in a new style of the poetry. The style is not only the fitting of best words into best words it possesses certain other means and definitions. Successfully the writer has transferred the negatives and the abstractions to the noticeable snail (Moore, 2017). The lines of the poem ends with the colon and the list begin with the absence of the feet. Critics of the poem opined that it is the witty allusion to the free verse. A fundamental demonstration of the compression was also in the poem.
Moore expresses the beauty of compression in her poem. She also carefully design the structure of the poem. All the lines of the poem started with one vertical line and lines are also shorter and organized. The using of the space is appeared to disseminate the primary message of her poems. The implication of the particular insects also shows that she wanted to form a sarcasm for the poets and readers. ‘In the absence of the feet’, the individual has to depend on other means to stand and support the weight of the body. It is like that of the poet who lost in the poem and wanted to have the commanding base. All the humans in democratic or non-democratic system desired for the contractility.
Mariana more in her works emphasizes the quality of freedom and implies the free verse. True democratic values are often found in her collection of work. In her poem, ‘The Paper Nautilus’ she uses the same form, structure and the message which is conveyed by the Williams Carlos. The form and the meter of the poem are in the free verse (Moore, 2017). ‘The Paper Nautilus’ is the official version of poetry which written in the free verse. There is no regular meter and the rhyme scheme. Moore comes up with the wonderful line breakup of the poem. The break between the second and the third line is trembling.
A phrase carries break in the works of Moore provides the arbitrary and a bit clumsy. Huge weighty pause along with the break of line and incorporation of pretty word ‘in’ and we forced to end the phrase, with the beginning of new line confuses the readers. It is a kind of feeling that readers are jerking around. Poetry in the latest and Moore style resist the way, where the poetry is primarily organized and structured (Cureton, 2017). The modern poetry refused to follow the proper rhyme and the scheme. Other than the kinds of free verse poetry the poem is highly structured with the verse turned free. Similarly, despite the shift of the poet from the worldly figures to the sea animals, she maintains the powerful relation between both and presented the similarities and the differences.
The mutual freedom of the eggs and shell call back shoddy enclosures of the authorities in the opening lines of the poem. Moore intensifies the relations between the Nautilus and her eggs by recalling the interaction and association of the authorities. She repeated the image of sight while using ‘watched eggs’ and heightened by the pun on ‘see’ and unfolded the blindness of the worldly figures. The lines at the end describe the beautiful message of the poem for the readers. The line reveals that love is not trapped but it is processed by the reciprocal freedom and the protection. The poem effects by referring back to the previous words. It is like that of the mind which refers back to the previous thoughts and processes.
The poem is concerned with the struggle of individual who wanted to come up with the basic issues of the contemporary life. The interest of the others and the self-interest are the focused points in the poem. The readers also have given the problems of the society in 1940. The Maginot line is the description of the eastern front of France, which provides false security to its builders and neighbours (Fraser, 2017). It was supposedly indestructible. The decision of the US in participating in the World War II is considered by the critics as the central theme of the poem. Effects of the freedom and the definition of the love as ‘the only fortress/strong enough to trust to’ unfolded the meaning of the poem.
The idea of the love in the poem is also described by the Marianna Moore in the unconventional style of the poem. It is presented in such a way as mind working through the meaning of love (Mariani, 2016). The poet did not change the convictions mercurially instead pivoted from the honest attempt to come to the description of the complexity in human relationships. The good illustration is the pattern used for the conversation in the poem. The use of the pattern for the war in Vietnam provides the view that independence and the freedom are the core ideas of the poem. The philosophy of the William Carlos is positively described by the poet with the following of the free verse structure. The non-traditional ways of describing the events also show that the poet wanted to change a regular style of writing poetry. The poet erases the entire syllabic structure through her revision of the poem.
Through a long editing process, the poem has significantly achieved the free verse. It is different from the spontaneous writing. The poem is distinguished from the poem Howl of the Allen Ginsberg. Howl was written with the fixed poetic structure in order to imitate. Individuals are not going to be spouting out the couplets in the iambic pentameters when readers are ticked off. However, the poem of the Moore’s shows that he controlled the free verse can be. ‘The Paper Nautilus’ ends without having any fixed structure through the constant erasing and tweaking of the poem. In the same way, William Carlos has also negated the concept of the traditional style of writing the poetry.
William Carlos takes the gradual evolution and significance of the American idiom and localism. He focused on the objects and everyday figures. The poet developed the classical allusion and straying from work a day (Ruland, 2016). He moved to the free verse which suited to his contemporary works. In 1920 he published the poem which was Portrait of a lady. The poem has no connection with the novel of Henry James with the same title. The poem revolves around the passions for the lady with reference to the French painter. The readers of the poem can understand the conversation of the speaker and his intentions towards the innocent romance of Watteau (Mariani, 2016). True representation and reflection of the feeling of the writer by the Fragonard. The imagery of the women refers to the lower half, knees to the southern breeze, and ankles to the tall grass. Comparing of the female parts with the things is the natural and the convention from the renaissance times.
William poem describes the frustrating and futile attempts to unfold the feelings and the experiences. Comparison with the sky of the lady and then a description of the sky is an attempt by the writer to reveal the insights and feelings of the Carlos. The poem is the accurate process of writing and the best way of conveying the message. The distraction in the flow of ideas leads to the free verse and open poem. After the distraction of the poem, it comes back to the comments of frustration and the translation of the emotions, feelings and experiences into the words. The poet believes that the invention of poetry is not disentangled from the situation of its generation. Similarly, he follows with free verse and modernizes writing can enlarge the vision of the readers.
William was part of the revolutionary movement and the modernistic poetic revolution. The ideological and technical hybridity of the Williams differs it from the poetic counterparts. He found the American culture as wanting where many writers move to the European region. Other than the international poets he prefers and voice for the contribution of local poets. The purpose was that local poets reflect the real picture of the American society. The Americanisation of the pastoral and the epic contributed to the poetic structure which effects the authentic American culture and norms (Svensson, 2016). Many popular anthologies are used in the poem.
Literary critics are of the view that the poem f William Carlos is a dialogue between the men and women. Due to the structure of free verse, the poem is not supporting the main language of the poetry. The poet has put the quality of freedom in the poem. He tries to present it to the readers with the new and the conscious form. All the elements of the environment and American society are also incorporated by the writer (Cureton, 2017). The truth and the democratic values in the poem can by analyse through structural examination of the poem. As an American poet, he also engages the lines with the phenomena he presented for modernize and collaborative society. Restrictions and the formalities in the structure and patterns of the poem lead to the suppression of many ideas. The conventional and the traditional style of writing the poetry is not fair for the field. American society needs to be reforms and reconstruction through the innovative and the open writings of the poetry.
The writing goals of the William Carlos was to reveal the American experiences through the introspection of ordinary subjects. The highly visual and imagistic style of the poet sparked the imagistic movement in the American literature. He was well experienced as a doctor and implied the figurative words and phrases along with the urban colloquialism in writing of his poetry. The deceptively casual writing of the Williams provides the readers more than the meaning of appeared words. Through his writing, he was considered as the visual poet because of his awareness about the appearance of words on the poetic pages. Regarding the form and rhyme, he was considered and well known for pushing them from the boundaries and choose to write in deceptively casual style.
In the same way, he wrote a poem ‘Spring and All’ with the same style of disruptive writing. There is no meter and rhyme in the poem. The lines are free from both literary elements (Williams, 2016). He was interested in the fancy tradition of poetic writings. Literary circles have continuously described the Williams as the writer of free verse. There is no regulatory of ideas and thoughts along with the conventional rules of the poetry. He works hard to get out of the old things traditions of writing the things. As he was modernist in his approach he also prefers to choose the modern poetic style. In ‘Spring and All’ he chooses the same style with an unpretentious and direct approach towards the issues in the poem (Cureton, 2017). The availability of the rhyme in the literary text is not essential for the form of the text.
The choice of the words and the arrangement of the lines along with the use of the images in the text are essential to creating effects. Well, design and precise composition of the poem influence the minds of the readers. The poem of the William Carlos is short, simple and possess unpretentious images. The focused of the text was on the clarity and the sharpness. Most of the Williams poems are the reflection of his personal life experiences. He discovers the poetry in the world revolving around him (Williams, 2016). The simplicity of the text shows that William does not want to choose the fancy references of history in his writing. Spring and All was extracted from the books which include different kinds of imaginative ideas and thoughts.
Spring is the pretty important aspect of the poem. It was developed from the weird character, taking on almost human characteristics. It has changed the world of poetry. The spring was described as the sluggish and dazed. The words are generally used by the humans in their routine conversation. By personifying the object Williams gives the lesson to the readers. In the same way, the profound changes of the arrival of spring unfolded the innovations and changes that are coming during the 20th century. War was ended and people are moving towards the spring with the producing of new art, philosophy and the scientific inventions. The spring is always a symbol for the new beginning. However, Williams has a specific message in the disruptive lines of his poem (Williams, 2016).
Williams has confidently implied the relation between nature and the man. He pointed out the different aspects of the nature of the environment which comes after the road and hospital. Places are the major symbol of the human world. He told through the text that man and nature are separate but they have certain links and relationships. In our world of the roads and the hospitals, we have lost the participation in the world of nature. In the same way, the poem is the allegory of the spiritual rebirth (Fraser, 2017). The animals, humans and the plants are the part of the natural world and go through the cycle of death. The writing style of the poet shows that at the end of the poem everything was changed which means that it lacks the chronological pattern and possess the structure of the free verse.
The poem begins with the straightforward set of images and impressions which moves into the quickened vision. The first four stanzas of the poem are consist of the succession which is minute fixations. Those minute changes afterwards with the more resolute observations of the connoisseurs of the perceptions. Subtle changes in the stanza singles shifts in the perspective of Williams Carlos. The text of the poem appeal ironically to the reverie tradition of the English poetry. Similarly, the poem unfolded the related with the respect, awe, and the wonder before the process of life take form. The text ‘They enter the new world naked’ allows the process of birth in the vegetative realm which associated with the human birth.
The prose context of the poem in ‘Spring and All’ is the book which is the renewal of the imagination. It suggested that Williams had a concept in his mind about the rebirth of the new forms of the poetry (Williams, 2016). The creative force operating biological in the nature and higher level in the consciousness to create the art. Collaborating the elements of nature and the humanistic life in the poem, Williams Carlos got to have the idea that poetry must have new forms, which could enlarge the vision of the readers and poets. For that matter, he negates the traditional rules and regulation for the structure and the composition of meter and rhyme in his poetic text.
Concluding the discussion, it is to say that American verse must have the quality of freedom in the writings. For the incorporations of new and developed ideas, the American writers will have to understand the new patterns and structures of the poetic text. The two poems of the Marian Moore exemplifies the philosophy of the Williams Carlos and approached the readers with different and innovative styles. Carlos has practically transformed his humanistic ideas into the text of modern poetry.
Azambuja, Enaiê Mairê. “Human and animal in ‘the Open’: an exploration of image and wording in the poetry of Marianne Moore and João Cabral de Melo Neto.” (2015).
Churchill, Suzanne W. The little magazine Others and the renovation of modern American poetry. Routledge, 2017.
Cureton, Richard. “Readings in Temporal Poetics: Four Poems by William Carlos Williams.” Style 51.2 (2017): 187-206.
Fraser, George Sutherland. Metre, rhyme and free verse. Vol. 7. Taylor & Francis, 2017.
Mariani, Paul. William Carlos Williams: A New World Naked. Trinity University Press, 2016.
Moore, Marianne. New Collected Poems. INTERNATIONAL EDITION, 2017.
Ruland, Richard, and Malcolm Bradbury. From puritanism to postmodernism: a history of American literature. Routledge, 2016.
Svensson, Jimmie. “Iconicity in Verse: Overview, Examples, and Challenges.” The American Journal of Semiotics (2016).
Williams, William Carlos. “Spring and All, XIV.” Poets. org. Acad. of Amer. Poets, nd Web 31 (2014).