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Biomedical Model Aspects

The biomedical model has been in existence since the mid-19th century. It focuses on biological factors, which exclude environmental, psychological, and social influences. It is regarded to be the leading modern method used by healthcare professionals to diagnose and cure certain health conditions in several Western countries (Wade & Peter, 2014, p. 25). The biomedical model deals with diseases that are caused by biological factors. However, the advantages of the model are that it increases the life expectancy of the population as the treatment advances. It is very effective in treating various common problems and returning people to a good health state. It is argued that the biomedical model can lead to advanced medical technology, which is required for the treatment of people. Biomedical treatments can also improve the quality of life of individuals suffering from chronic conditions.

The disadvantages of the biomedical model are several, and some of them are that the use of advanced medical technology can be very costly to a government and, therefore, the biomedical model is very expensive (Wade & Peter, 2014, p. 10). The model does not address factors that caused certain medical conditions like other models do to make sure that a health condition is properly treated. Under the biomedical model, not all health conditions can be cured, but the behaviour can be managed. The final disadvantage is that paying for treatment and medication through a biomedical approach can be expensive for an individual patient.

The Social Model Of Health

The social model of health addresses influences which can result in poor health. It is supposed to improve the health and well-being of a person by addressing social, economic, and environmental issues which affect the health of society (Samaha, 2012, p. 5). The advantages of the social model of health care: it is the best community approach to preventing illness and disease in society, it addresses a wider influence of health rather than injury and disease, and therefore, it is one of the best models which can be used to address health issues. It also puts a lot of focus on the promotion of health, policies, and the provision of education.

The disadvantages are that though it prevents certain conditions that cannot be prevented, the model does not promote the development of technology, and therefore, technology is not used to prevent diseases. However, studies have shown that the model does not address everybody’s health condition (Samaha, 2012, p. 10).

A Holistic Model Of Health

The holistic model of health provides the highest and best quality of health results. Its results are also reliable and accurate compared to other models of health. The advantages of a holistic model of health are that it is best for quicker relief of pain, and therefore, ovarian cancer patients do not feel pain when undergoing treatment using a holistic model of health. It also applies the use of natural herbs and medicine more than other models. The disadvantage of a holistic model of health is that computer software is needed to calculate the results. It lacks insurance acceptance and scientific corroboration. The model is also regarded as unreliable since it cannot offer immediate medical attention to cancer patients.

Biopsychological Model Of Health

The biopsychological model of health is believed to have been discovered in the 1970s, and it claims that the well-being and health of people depend on the interaction of biological, physiological, and mental factors. The advantages of the biopsychological model of healthcare are that it maintains psychological, biological, and social factors of all illnesses and is the determiner of health. It does not contain any detailed explanation for diseases caused by bacteria and viruses. It assumes all illness is a result of mental illness, which is not a fact, and that is its major disadvantage (Pilgrim, 2015).

An Empowerment Model Of Healthcare

The advantages of the empowerment model of healthcare are that it improves the communication between doctors or physicians and patients, therefore making the provision of health services easy and faster. It solves the dilemma of treatment of certain diseases, such as breast cancer in women, since doctors and patients can engage and agree on the model and treatment as well. The disadvantages are the information provided to patients can confuse them and, therefore, increase anxiety, which can derail the provision of healthcare to patients.

Orem’s Self Care

Orem’s Self-Care is a care planning framework that was developed between 1959 and 2001. It was developed by Dorothea Orem. The theory means that human beings can adapt to any environment and, therefore, can provide self-care. It states that a human being has the capability to adapt to someone’s environment until she or he becomes acquitted to the environment. Orem’s self-care is focused on homecare services and provides care to individual patients at home. It ensures that each person can provide personal care (Wayne, 2012).

Neuman System Model

It is the nursing theory that is based on the personal relationship to reaction, stress, and reconstitution of factors that are very dynamic in nature. It was developed by Neuman, a professor and counsellor. The care plan provides detailed, flexible, holistic, and system-based nursing practices (Neuman, 1-35, p. 12).

Compare And Contrast The Neuman System And Orem’s Self-Care

Orem’s self-care is a self-care theory. The theory offers a guide to nursing practice by explaining, describing, and predicting phenomena (Shah, Amir, & Khan, 2013, p. 12). Neuman system model provides holistic support to enable them to offer nursing care. It gives the basic knowledge required for the provision of nursing services. Neuman’s theory of nursing is based on individual relations to certain conditions, such as stress and reaction, to enable one to offer similar services to a patient. However, Orem’s self-care is offered to patients at their homes, rehabilitation centres, acute care units, and ambulatory clinics (Wilson & Gramling, 2009, p. 23). Neumans are usually offered to patients at hospitals and healthcare facilities. Orem’s self-care and Neuman’s system theory describe actions that should be taken to offer professional nursing care, which is technological, prescriptive, care management, and regulatory.


Neuman, B. 2009. The Neuman Systems Model.

neuman.html, 1-25.

Pilgrim, D. 2015. The Biopsychosocial Model in Health Research: Its Strengths and Limitations

For Critical Realists. Journal Critical Realism, 2-34.

Samaha, A. M. 2012. What Good Is the Social Model of Disability? Public Law and Legal

Theory Working Papers, 2-45.

Shah, M., Amir, A., & Khan, H. 2013. Compare and Contrast of Grand Theories: Orem’s Self-

Care Deficit Theory and Roy’s Adaptation. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 2-34.

Wade, D. T., & Peter, H. 2014. Do biomedical models of illness make for good healthcare?

systems? U.S. National Library for Medicine and National Institution of Health, 2-35.

Wayne, G. 2012. Dorothea Orem’s Self-Care Theory.

self-care-theory/, 1-34.

Wilson, J., & Gramling, L. 2009. The Application of Orem’s Self-Care Model to Burn Care.

Journal of Burn Care & Research, 1-30.



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