Etiology- What causes this disease?
The etiology of Hyperparathyroidism disease is the deficiency or low levels of parathyroid hormone that leads to an increased level of phosphate and a low level of calcium in the human blood. The majority of the cases of hyperparathyroidism are caused after the surgery for malignant and benign thyroid disorders and post-surgery for neck and head cancers. Moreover, neurosurgical etiologies of hyperparathyroidism include autoimmune destruction of the glands, magnesium depletion, invasion due to tumors, and radiation (Banasik, 2021).
What happens at the cellular, tissue, or organ levels?
In hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid glands in the body become overactive due to structural problems or gland enlargement that leads to glands making excess parathyroid hormone due to which calcium level is imbalanced in the blood.
How does that alter the function of the associated system?
Due to the overactive actions of parathyroid glands that make too much parathyroid hormone in the blood in case of hyperparathyroidism, calcium level in the blood becomes too high that leading to severe health problems such as kidney stones and bone thinning (Banasik, 2021).
How does it impact the function of the body as a whole?
The pathogenesis of the disease causes tingling sensations in the body, kidney stones, muscle spasms, bone pain, skin is damaged, reduced muscle strength, loss of physical function, vision problems, and cognitive dysfunction.
What signs will you observe or measure?
The common signs that may be the most noticeable in a person suffering from hyperparathyroidism which a medical care provider can easily measure or observe are wheezing, seizures, cognitive impairment, airway obstruction, nausea, damaged or dry skin, nail changes, and hair changes.
What symptoms will the client experience or feel?
The symptoms a client may feel may vary from mild conditions such as tingling, bone and muscle pain, depression, cardiac arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythm), psychiatric overtones such as emotional sensitivity and groaning, kidney stones, and muscle spasm to severe conditions such as seizures and laryngospasm (Banasik, 2021).
What abnormal labs and diagnostic tests confirm or support the diagnosis of the disease?
A simple blood test can indicate hyperparathyroidism in the blood through the indication of hypocalcemia (calcium level below the normal range) and can be further confirmed through a urine test, medical background, and physical assessment (Reid and Wheeler, 2005).
Briefly explain the types of treatments used.
The type of chronic treatment used for hyperparathyroidism is the institution of calcium in the blood through supplements or medications to increase the level of calcium in the blood. Besides, vitamin D supplements are given to patients with hyperparathyroidism because the active form of vitamin D increases the calcium level by acting on the intestine to make calcium absorbed in the blood.
What are the goals of treatment in relation to the pathophysiology?
The treatment of the pathophysiology of hyperparathyroidism is complex because it is a life-long process and sometimes remains unresolved even after the treatment because it may become “unmasked” due to surgery, any other illness, or stress (Reid and Wheeler, 2005). However, the goal of the treatment is to develop a care plan to maintain normal calcium levels in the body using medications and surgical procedures.
Are we seeking a cure, remission, or palliative care?
The pathophysiology of hyperthyroidism requires patients to seek urgent medical cures from professional healthcare providers.
Banasik, J. L. (2021). Pathophysiology. (7th ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. US.
Reid, J. R., & Wheeler, S. F. (2005). Hyperthyroidism: diagnosis and treatment. American family physician, 72(4), 623-630.