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Bender Gestalt Test By Lauretta Bender

In 1938, the Bender Gestalt Test was developed by Lauretta Bender. A uni-dimensional theoretical construct approach was used to develop this instrument. During the construction of this test, designs taken from the work of gestalt psychologist Max Wertheimer in 1923 (Routh, 1998), in accordance to which the test was viewed as a whole to interpret a used approach (by an individual) to a given stimuli or problem (Wertheimer, 1923). Although there is a diversity of domains measuring different abilities, such as visuospatial and visual perception and memory skills (Marnat, 2009), there is the same underlying construct that makes it uni-dimensional. Along with the theoretical construct, the clinician’s judgment plays a very important role (Butcher, Bubany & Mason, 2013).

The same theoretically derived uni-dimensional test construction approach was used in BGT-II, but additional alterations were made using Rasch analysis, which uses the item response theory. (Linicare, 2005). This theory unfolds the contrast between the ability of the test taker and the difficulty level of items. The IRT was used to supplement additional items to the test so that a total of 16 items in the test could be developed with a ceiling effect and a floor. It has also aided in extending the norms of the test for better utility and generalizability (Brannigan & Decker, 2003).

Wide Range Achievement Test:

WRAT was first developed in 1941 by Joseph Jastak. Its latest edition, WRAT 4, was published in 1946. There have been further revisions in the year 1984 and another in 1993 (J. Robertson, 2010). Originally, WRAT was developed on the basis of Wechsler’s idea of measuring intelligence when it was suggested that intelligence could not be measured through one scale, but it had four contents that were incorporated into the Wide Range Achievement Test. There was no specific theory, but most of the work reflects Item Response Theory, which echoes the concept that retorts to certain items signify core variables of personality, for example, a trait. (Butcher, Bubany & Mason). In 1984, WRAT (R) was issued. This was based on the Rasch model. Many of the changes made in this version was due to the “Rasch analysis and scaling”. The construct validity of WRAT R was interpreted through statistical Rasch values. “person & item separation” (Reid, 1986).Further, for WRAT 4, which is the most recent development in the WRAT series, content analysis of WRAT 3 was done to check the correlation between items of WRAT 3 and WRAT 4. WRAT 4 was developed based on the content-based developmental strategy derived from Cronbach and Meehl ( 1955). (Butcher, Bubany & Mason). WRAT-IV has been assessed and reviewed during the course of the past years by using IRT analysis, and as a result, more items were encompassed in the test.

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale:

WAIS was first developed in 1939, and it is known as Wechsler Bellevue and is based on a multifaceted theory. Then, more items were generated to measure these manifold characteristics of intelligence. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale:

The test was first issued in 1955. It was aimed at the measurement of intelligence in the adult and older adolescent population. Designed by psychologist David Wechsler, who believed that intelligence is mental abilities rather than a single general intelligence factor (Cherry, 2017). The initial theoretical basis of the development of WAIS was that intelligence is based on various factors. Based on this theory, certain items were developed to measure these factors (Kline, 2005). The items on the test were generated to measure cognitive abilities and assess intelligence. WAIS is, hence, built on a theoretically derivative multi-dimensional methodology based on both the clinician’s judgment and the theory (Butcher, Bubany & Mason, 2013). As the standardization data for WAIS originally and the WAIS-R were imperiled to principal-factor analysis and a 2-factor resolution for all scales. (Silverstein, 1982). After the exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria and higher order exploratory factor analysis were applied to WAIS-III, its recently revised edition, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Fourth Edition, was devised. Based on standardization sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher order exploratory factor analysis (L. and W, 2010). As a result, WAIS has three fundamental factors: Memory, verbal performance, and perception (Cohen, 1957).

More Read: Pte Practice Test

Adaptive Behavior Assessment System:

In the year 2000, the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System was developed by Patti Harrison & Thomas Oakland. It assesses a person on an adaptive behavioral scale on the development and regulation of their adaptive behaviors as required by the daily demands of their life based on different domains. (Harrison and Oakland, 2008). These domains are imitative from AAMR’s (1992) supposition that ten skill areas are essential for measuring adaptive behavior, which are communication, Community use, Functional Academics, Health and Safety, Home or School living, Leisure, Self-Care, Self-Direction, Social and work. A functional analysis paper (1982) applied visual inspection to the informal criteria produced by the assessment. (Dixon, Vogel, and Tarbox, 2012). The development of the scale was based on construct-oriented scale development in the sequential system in which a construct is defined theoretically; based on this, an item pool is formed on which a factor analysis is performed to guarantee homogeneity in the construct (Butcher, Bubany & Mason, 2013).


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