For A1, you will need to find the following information for your country:
- Location and geographical factors plus climate and environmental factors:
Republic of Yemen is located in Western Asia at Arabian Peninsula’s southern end. It’s an Arab Sovereign state with second largest nation from all the countries situated at Arabian Peninsula. The area of Yemen is covering total area of 203, 50 sq mi. It shares boundaries with Oman, Saudi Arabia, Aden Gulf and Red sea. The coastline of Yemen is 1906 km and total boundary of land length of 1,746 km. Yeman have the narrow coastal line and flat-topped hills with rugged mountains. It has both the desert which is in the middle of the country and forest interior of Arabian Peninsula. The changes to its coastal lines happened when the December 2004 tsunami occurred which occurred several countries including Yemen which caused the fishing business severely (Janardhana and Al-Qadhi, 2018).
The climate of Yemen is high temperature combined with humidity and the highest level of temperature reaches to 54 degree Centigrade. It is known for a hot climate country. Due to the desert in the middle of country, the wind which blows from north in summer and south when its winter the cause mostly severely sandstorms and a little rain. The ideal temperature in Arabia is considered to be near 20 degree Centigrade comes in between January and February in Yemen.
The environment contains the vegetation which are on the coast of Yemen. There are several of the tress which are common including the date palm and acacia. The cultivation also includes many type of grapes and custard apple, spurge and euphorbia. The animals which are found in the Yemen are leopard, gazelle and mountain hare. Snakes are not many but in the dessert scorpions are found everywhere. Throughout the country, almost 93 bird’s species and 66 mammals are found in Yemen (Kelley et al., 2015).
The environmental problems which is facing by Yemen is scarcity of water, desertification and soil erosion. The main industry in Yemen is oil industry that is why the pollution in water is the most in Yemen. The renewable water resources in 4 cu km in which 92% is annual withdrawal while using for the farming ad only 1% for the purpose of industry. The agricultural clearing and livestock have destroyed most of the forest on the mountains in Yemen. The national environmental council which was established in 1976 emphasis on the conservation and government have now created laws in the response of forest damages to prevent the damages and regulate the use of water supply. Protection of water and marine life come under the law number 42, 1991 (Al-Fadhli et al., 2015).
- Population and infrastructure:
In the year 2005, according to United Nations the population of Yemen was estimated around 20, 0727,000 which makes Yemen come on the 50th position of overall world ranking of 193 top population countries of the world. The population distribution of the country is 4% is above 65 years of ages, 46% under the age of 15 years of age. For every 100 females, there were 103 males in the country. The rate of growth in the population is 3.3% from 2005 to 2010 which is too high according to United Nations. Yemen is placed among the highest in the world when it comes to the fertility of women which 6.8 births per woman (Laub, 2016).
Yemen have relatively underdeveloped and poor infrastructure. The primary and secondary roads which are serviced in the Yemen by network over 67,000 kilometers. The paved roads of the Yemen are 7,700 roads. The roads in the southern part of Yemen are quite in bad condition. The heavy rains and flashed flood have damaged those roads. The economic development relies on the condition of roads in Yemen and analyst considers the condition of roads a major barrier in the development of Yemen. The country have no railway system. There are five major airports in the Yemen. Those are located in major cities Sanaa, Rayyan, Aden, Taiz and Hodeida. Sanaa and Aden airport’s renovation started in 2000. The official airline of the country is Yemenia which is protected by the government from competition of foreign airlines. This airline is criticized several times for no privatizing it for better performance and service but government is being reluctant and owned 51% of its shares. There are 6 ports in the country. All the ports are famous for delays in both loading and unloading except the one located in Aden. Port of Hodeida focuses mainly on the demotic activity and Aden Terminal which started in March 1999 is taking over the main port by its effective and efficient services.
The public Electricity Corporation serves as the only electricity supplier of Yemen. The capacity of this electricity supplier is 400 megawatts which barely meets demand of the country electricity needs. The 30% of the population is only having the facility of electricity and not having the capacity results in repeated blackout and shortages (Al-Aghbari et al., 2015).
Telecommunication services of Yemen is known as unreliable because it is often interrupted because of security reasons. There are 249,515 lines which were working in 1998 and the capacity of the service is 296,129 lines. The internet service which is costly and there is only one service provider for 12,000 users. This service is also unreliable because of poor service (Peterson, 2016).
- Relevant historical background and politics (do not write about the history of the country, who colonised it, which presidents it has had – focus on things like: is there constant warfare, dictatorship, democracy, political coups, corruption…):
The politics of Yemen turned into an uncertain sate because of the Coup d’état in 2014-15. The armed forces under the leadership of Houthis took over the control of government of Yemen and after the coup they announced to dissolve the parliament. They planned to dissolve the government and install presidential council, supreme revolutionary council and transitional national council which will govern the country for a short time period. In the meanwhile, the president which was replaced by the coup had declared that he is still in the office and also working for the establishment of rival government(Vasile and COCOŞ, 2015). Prior to this unstable political condition, Yemen’s political Frame was based on semi-presidential representative in which the head of the state was President and Prime minister will be appointed by President who will head the current government. The actual aim to design this system was the country will run on multi-party system but in reality the government only controlled by one party which was dominating the politics of Yemen. The judiciary system was independent but in reality the activities of were always intervene by the executive branch of government (Musibah, Shahzad and Fadzil, 2015).
The serious problem facing by Yemen is corruption. It is known to be the most corrupted nation in the region of Gulf. Due to corruption, it also the poorest among other countries it is surrounded by and the system lack the control and accountability. The World Bank remarked that the corruption in the country is present in all public affairs. The reason of bad and poor services in electricity, telecommunication, education and health is because of corruption which is part of system in Yemen. Yemen is 170th out of 176 countries in the list of transparency international 2016 report (Al-Iryani, de Janvry and Sadoulet, 2015).
For A2, you will need to find the following information for your country:
- Agriculture/livestock (focus on food sources particularly relevant to their diet), food security, access to water:
Yemen climate considered to be the most agricultural nation as compared to other Arabian peninsula. The important part of economy is based on the Agriculture of the Yemen which 15% of GDP in 2013. Even though the agricultural land in less, lack of water and the droughts, the agriculture still makes to the main part of economy. The 50% of employment of the country is related to agriculture on the 3% o arable area. The potential of agriculture of Yemen is self-sufficiency but the trade deficit of agriculture was $947 million (Peterman, 2015).
Apart from agriculture, Yemen is famous for coffee production. The word Mocha drives from the port of Yemen Al-Mukha. The cash crop is mainly qat and Yemenis chewed it on daily basis but it is not exported due to the perishable nature. The vegetable and fruits which are farmed in the Yemen is only sufficient for the domestic use even though they use advanced method of irrigation. The boarder restriction also causes the barrier in international trade when it comes to exporting. The output of agriculture in 2004 includes tomatoes rapes, seed cotton, coffee, sorghum and bananas with total of 1,000 tons (Zawahri, 2017).
- Nutrition/health issues: rates of malnutrition, rates of nutritional deficiencies, communicable diseases:
The major health problem associated with malnutrition and other diseases cause malnourished to 30% of children under five years of age. The widespread diseases includes tuberculosis, hepatitis, cough and typhoid fever exists in Yemen due to poor sewage disposal and avoiding general health hazards. Only 69% population have the access of safe water for drinking including the adequate sanitation for only 45% of population. The civil conflict which was happened in 1994 created food, water and medical shortage in Aden which caused major health problems. IN 2004, it is estimated that for 1000 people there are only 45 nurses, 22 physicians and 1 dentists. The GDP of 6.5% only contributed to health care expenditure (Banajeh, 2017).
The life expectancy was estimated in 2005 was only 61.75 years and the mortality rate of infant was 61.50 years per 100o births in that years. Children immunization rates up to one year were 62% diphtheria, tuberculosis, 57% polio and 51% measles. The overall crude birth rate as of 2002 was estimated 43 and mortality rate was 9.3 per 1,000 people. In 2003, the HIV/Aids prevalence was 0.1 per 100 adults. There were 1,200 people in the country in 2004 who were living with HIV/AIDS (Mohamed, Elayah and Schulpen, 2017).
- Current programmes running in the country to improve nutritional status that you identified in your searches:
The Emergency health and Nutrition project is running to improve the nutrition in Yemen. The main aim of the project is to contribute in the basic health and nutrition essential services for the population of Yemen. The condition of malnutrition in Yemen which is caused by the on-going conflict and crisis of food security (De Souza, 2017)
. The following are the aims of this program:
- Provide the support in the prevention and treatment of malnutrition in Yemen which is facing the problem in food insecurity.
- Modification of basic health system of Yemen and provide the intermediate results in the improvement of health and essential nutrition services(Qirbi and Ismail, 2017).
Al-Aghbari, A., Abu-Ulbeh, W., Ibrahim, O. and Saeed, F., 2015. The Readiness and Limitations of E-Government in Yemen. Jurnal Teknologi, 73(2), pp.107-115.
Al-Fadhli, A.A., Othman, M., Rashed, A. and Ramasamy, A., 2015. Telehealth in Yemen: An Overview and a Proposed Model. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Computing and Informatics,(ICOCI 2015, Istanbul, Turkey)(pp. 121-126).
Al-Iryani, L., de Janvry, A. and Sadoulet, E., 2015. The Yemen Social Fund for Development: An Effective Community-Based Approach amid Political Instability. International Peacekeeping, 22(4), pp.321-336.
Banajeh, S.M., 2017. Patterns and Trends in the Attributable Fractions of under-5 Years Hospitalization and Inpatient Death for Neonates, Infectious Diseases, and Severe Acute Malnutrition in Yemen: A Retrospective Data Analysis. International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition, 6(1), pp.34-42.
De Souza, L.R., 2017. Correlates of child undernutrition in Yemen. Bandung: Journal of the Global South, 4(1), p.3.
Janardhana, M.R. and Al-Qadhi, A.A.A.A., 2018. Slope Stability Assessment in and around Taiz City, Yemen, Using Landslide Possibility Index (LPI). European Journal of Advances in Engineering and Technology, 5(1), pp.8-17.
Kelley, C.P., Funk, C.C., McNally, A. and Shukla, S., 2015, December. Climate Change And Hydrologic Instability In Yemen. In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts.
Laub, Z., 2016. Yemen in crisis. Council on Foreign Relations, 19.
Mohamed, H., Elayah, M. and Schulpen, L.W.M., 2017. Yemen between the impact of the climate change and the ongoing Saudi-Yemen war: A real tragedy.
Musibah, A.S., Shahzad, A. and Fadzil, F.H.B., 2015. Analyzing the Business and Economic Scenario of Foreign Direct Investment in Yemen Compared with That of Selected Countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). International Journal of Business and Information, 10(1), p.125.
Peterman, A., 2015. Women’s Economic Empowerment: Indicators and survey design.
Peterson, J.E., 2016. Yemen: The search for a modern state. Routledge.
Qirbi, N. and Ismail, S.A., 2017. Health system functionality in a low-income country in the midst of conflict: the case of Yemen. Health policy and planning, 32(6), pp.911-922.
Vasile, P.O.P.A. and COCOŞ, O., 2015. THE ROLE OF SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN PERPETUATING THE CONFLICTS IN YEMEN. Revista Română de Geografie Politică Year XVI, (2), pp.65-75.
Zawahri, N.A., 2017. Water Security in the Middle East and North Africa.