Academic Master


Why students drop out of school and how digital media may promote education


With rising technological jobs and technology worming its way into our daily lives, learning and receiving education is of crucial nature. It is claimed and advocated that the education that children receive is the cornerstone of their effectiveness in any society. The formal education that they receive in schools and other educational institutes is the building block for their life. It grooms them and transforms them into a valuable member of the economic system. However, the rate of students opting to continue studying after high school has been continuously declining in the past few years due to a number of influencing reasons some of which include, social pressure, the urge to start earning right away, peer pressure and finding formal education of no use in the practical life.

Schools in the twenty-first century have several purposes and provide numerous opportunities to learners. These educational institutes are a place where students learn to work effectively in groups and collaboration with co-students. However, despite the purposes that school systems are supposed to serve, instead of inculcating creativity and interactively collaboration between learners, schools have continued to present problems for working students due to the traditional curriculum. Even today, the school system is bound in the rat race of tests and quizzes which do not allow flexibility for students who are facing tough problems of their own. In reality, the school systems in today’s world are fulfilling their purpose of preparing students neither for their jobs nor for the digital world that they belong to. Research shows that an increasing number of students are opting out of formal education in favour of hands-on experience in blue-collar jobs, freelancing and starting their own businesses. The Internet has opened up so many ways of earning with little investment that studying for a long period in hopes of landing a minimal-paying job does not hold the same appeal.

1.1 Reasons for drop-outs globally

Globally, research shows that there are several reasons for the drop out of educational institutes in addition to just having financial problems. Having no help like being able to take classes while being on the job or at home limits the options for a huge portion of teens all over the globe. Students who have the following discussed problems often find that they have only one option left which is dropping out of educational institutes.

1.1.1 Pregnancy and Parenthood

Students in the western part of the world often have to go through teen pregnancy and parenthood due to unsafe sexual practices which pose a serious threat to their educational career. Especially for students who have a weak financial background and live from one paycheck to another find it extremely difficult to deal with the pregnancy as well as the costs associated with getting rid of unwanted pregnancy or the expenses of bringing up an infant. Almost 1/3 of the girls that drop out of education institutes in developed countries are taking this decision do you do only unplanned pregnancy.

Teens who end up getting pregnant at such a young age may feel embarrassed at their life choices as well as about going back to classes while they are struggling with the symptoms of early morning sickness or fatigue. Such teenagers find it really difficult to keep up with the coursework. In addition to this it is a highly difficult task to take it of a newborn baby it is not only time-consuming but also energy-draining. In addition to this, the added stress of going to school for educational purposes makes life more difficult for teenagers especially if they do not have a co-parent and have no financial support. Such teenagers take the easy route and drop out of school and college so that they can earn and take care of their children.

1.1.2 Boredom

Some percentage of college dropouts have the silliest reason for this choice, they feel bored. Research suggests that students leave their studies for the fact that study material is not interesting. In addition to this, students also find it difficult to build a friendly relationship with their teachers and therefore are at and is at school. Such students find other interesting options and alternatives instead of going to school. Some of the interesting options that students pursue include getting a job or starting a career of their choosing. Students who leave school because they find it boring often think that high school education is overrated and there is not much value in pursuing this education. Rather than working on finding interest in school and building positive relationships with the teachers, students opt for the easier solution and quit school altogether.

1.1.3 Academic Struggles

Another important reason behind the rising dropout rate around the globe is the Academic struggles of young students. Orphan students find it difficult to get good grades and boss all courses. Rather than risk feeling again and again, they drop out. For them failing means extra semesters, extra fees, time wastage and another chance to fail and disappoint their parents. Rather than risking these things, they opt for the easier way out which is to rebel and stop attending school. Sometimes when students are struggling academically they often lose their scholarships and grants and this makes them helpless.

1.1.4 Lack of parent’s supervision and support

Another important reason that has led to a rise in dropout rates all around the globe includes a lack of support and supervision of parents towards their child’s education. The education of young adults is highly dependent upon the role parents choose to play. One of the major responsibilities of parents in terms of their child’s education is maintaining the school attendance of their children. Parents who are not concerned old engaged in the school progress of their children play an important role in the decision of children to stop attending school and drop out. When the parents are not supporting and encouraging their children to attend classes regularly, showing interest in their daily school activities, communicating regularly with teachers and paying attention to homework assignments, it becomes easier to keep the child interested in going to school.

1.1.5 Financial Issues

In addition to this, the lowering pay rates around the globe and the rising inflation rates have led to a higher cost of living for many middle-class families. For such families, making ends meet on a daily basis is getting difficult even with both parents working full-time jobs. Especially in developing countries, where parents are not highly educated and have limited financial resources, it is particularly difficult for them to fund the educational careers of their children.

In countries like Pakistan, the average family has at least five children and the majority number of families belong to the lower middle class with only an earning spouse. Such circumstances have led to various families either giving poor education to their children or paying not enough attention to their educational life which leads to students becoming careless in their studies and often leaving school. It is also a crucial fact that sometimes families do not have the resources to send their children to schools at all and make them work at an early age for a better living standard for the whole family.

1.2 Promotion of Education

Education is promoted at all international levels. Countries like the United States of America, the United Kingdom and Australia earn millions of dollars each year in terms of educational revenues from overseas students. However, due to various social influences, the domestic student count in various educational institutes around the globe is falling. Young adults fall into wrong habits like drugs and gambling which drives their focus off studies and they drop out. It is also plausible that sometimes people have to move out of one city and into another and going to old school becomes impossible.

Studies show that the major cause of students opting out of education is because they have to support themselves financially and for this purpose, they have to work more hours per week making it impossible for them to attend school on a regular basis. Young adults take up jobs and shifts that make it impossible for them to be at school in time for classes. To make the situation worse for such students, they have no financial help from their families to support their education and thus when students cannot pay attention to their studies and find it difficult to pay huge sums for a degree they do not have time to pursue. Education seems like a waste of time and extra effort.

1.3 Role of the Internet in Increasing Dropouts

One of the major reasons why students have started leaving education and decided to earn is because of the hype the internet has created of successful entrepreneurs who went from rags to riches despite having no formal education. Young children believe that they can make the same happen for themselves and for the purpose of getting rich, education is not a necessity. However, what the internet does not publicize is the fact that becoming rich from rags is a chance and only one in a million people have the lucky stars for making this happen for themselves. Internet and social media falsely get the hopes of young adults up and they leave education in an attempt to make money at a young age. It sometimes takes a whole lifetime to become successful as an entrepreneur. Internet and social media should focus on the advantages and need of education for young minds because, without the education of this generation, future generations will be at a loss. Rather than undermining the importance of education in society, the media should portray the need for education.

1.4 Importance of Education

It is important to understand that education does not just help in getting a white-collar job but has certain very long-term positive effects as well. Education serves as a separate sector in every country around the globe. Education is said to be a systematic process that aloe students to gain knowledge and develop skills through the medium of study and instructions. In such circumstances, with the student drop out ratio increasing all over the world because of busy life, education and its promotion are becoming one of the major concerns of the world. Education is highly important for the economy of any country as well as its prosperity. Theoretically, education is the only long-term effective solution for poverty by boosting economic growth worldwide and in turn increasing the income per capita. Not only is education a necessity for improving the financial position of individuals all over the globe but it is also an influential factor in raising awareness regarding gender equality and promoting peace. Improving the educational facilities and increasing awareness of education using the media that is widely used by students and young adults is the key to the spread of education.

Furthermore, despite the boosting technological developments and progress in countries across the globe, millions of children have no access to formal education in many remote areas of the world. Taking Pakistan as an example for such a study is not enough because education and its promotion have to become a priority for countries across the globe. According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, education is one of the vital rights of every human. Every child, be it a girl or a boy has the right to gain quality education for the mere purpose of gaining more chances and opportunities in life. It is believed that children who gain formal education have a chance at a better life filled with various opportunities. People who have formal education can live a much better life as compared to their illiterate ancestors who had little or no education and worked blue-collar jobs all their lives. By denying and not promoting education, certain opportunities and chances are snatched from the young ones. With no quality education, millions are being deprived of the chance of getting employment, better health opportunities, insurance and also a right to participate in politics in some countries where education for politicians is a must. Not only can digital media be used in effectively communicating the necessity of education as a basis on which economies strive to provide a better future to people but also helps in making education easily accessible for students all over the globe who want to continue their education despite the factors that hinder this process.

There are various reasons why digital media should be used to promote education and make it more easily accessible. For a country, an educated person is a valuable asset. An educated acts as human capital for the country and brings prosperity to the country’s economy. Education allows a person to become eligible for citizenship throughout the world. The purpose of education is to make students more tolerant towards all of humanity because it aims to bring peace around the world. Education teaches people to become public-spirited, wiser and tolerant towards people of all colours and races without holding biases. Education is the key to promoting the interests of the nation. People who gain education, and pursue careers like surgeons, doctors, scientists and engineers work to help people across the globe and bring in loads of money and publicity for the country.

Educated people invent things that make life easier for all humanity. They act as the true benefactors for all humanity. Social reforms that are brought about by educated people lead to governments that are working for the social benefit of the public. For a developing nation, education acts as a backbone for the future development. An educated person has an opportunity to get loans and raise investments for their entrepreneurial ventures. It is true that through education people cannot become saints but at least the school systems can help inculcate a positive value system in their students which allows them to become better human beings. Social evils like drugs, robbery and rape etcetera can be lessened with proper education.

The immense importance of the educational system is that education is one of the most important aspects for an individual and for the overall development or welfare of society and the country as a whole. Unfortunately, the state of education in many developing countries around the globe is sad because hundreds of millions of young minds are out of school and are forced to earn a hard living through child labour. In addition to this, children who do get the opportunity to go to schools are given poor-quality education in government schools.

1.5 Digital Media, Technology and Education

Digital media is a very broad term and entails any audio file, video or animated files that have been encoded. Encoded in simple terms means digitally compressed. This process is carried out by converting any audio or video file into a digital media file for example a VLC file. The encoding of any media in digital media allows it to be manipulated easily, as well as shared and distributed over various computer networks using the internet. Over the past couple of years, the use of digital media has become highly popularized and is used in various sectors for better performance and effectiveness.

It is very easy to claim that our future as a global digital world is highly dependent on communication and easy transmission and transfer of data using mediums provided by technology. The Internet has become a digital marketplace where all sorts of services can be found to make operations better in any industry. The latest study is into the use of the internet and digital media in the education sector for better transmission of education and for making education easier for students who find it difficult to find time for the regular school system. In the digitized and technology-oriented world, the use and knowledge of digital media do not just allow better communication and easy handling of tasks that were once done by hand.

Technology like digital media can be used for a technology-rich approach in education for its promotion and easy accessibility. Digital media is the latest trend and is highly effective in promotions. We come across hundreds of promotion campaigns on digital media that are moving and make us think twice. This study proposes using the very same digital media to promote quality education and make sure Pakistan and other countries do not suffer the consequences of not giving quality education to its current generation. Promoting education is crucial for the future of the world that we live in. Digital media is a very simple term but is a complex phenomenon to understand, and difficult to implement, but at the same time makes things simpler and easier. Technology has been making life easier for users for a long period now. The latest technology changes have given a new shape and identity to education however, the inculcation of the digital revolution in developed countries like the United States of America, has led to a 360-degree change. The face of education will be completely revolutionized if countries like Pakistan start adopting digital media in the educational sector for the purpose of its promotion and flexibility. The concept of digital media in education will allow the spread of education in areas that did not receive formal education due to being remote. Many people in villages and small towns across the globe, do not have access to good universities and colleges in big cities. The use of media can allow the government to provide educational facilities to these small villages and provide them with a chance to gain opportunities that will open up because of education.

ICT or the computerized age is the reality of our lives today which is unavoidable in the event that one needs to live, learn and push forward in 21st century world. This advanced age is a possibly freeing process liberating educators and understudies from the procurement and maintenance of data and empowering them to concentrate more on the innovative procedures of making associations and making new ways which have significance and reason for the present time (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2000). ICT or computerized age assets today offer extraordinary open doors in the instruction area and particularly to our schools for the recipient part they give in data, learning and research. It unmistakably expresses that educators ought to be carefully proficient keeping in mind the end goal to utilize these ICT assets and devices. Existing conventional practices and parts essentially be changed by the utilization of innovation in the classroom. Instructors must be a facilitators and direct the understudies towards the correct heading whereas understudies ought to be given the opportunity to investigate, find and ask.

Assets ought to be influenced and accessible to the schools keeping in mind the end goal to satisfy this target and educators must be instructed carefully. That is to say, educational modules of educator training will in the end be changed into ICT-based educational programs and exploratory academic practices. ICT can improve the showing learning process and can make it more intelligent than today. It will give new measurements to the learning as it will prompt self-governing learning. Constructivism will rise as the new hypothesis and innovation will tail it practically speaking as it stresses synergistic adapting, certifiable undertakings with valid evaluations with understudies tolerating duty regarding their own learning. In any case, this will need inner motivation and help framework from our instruction framework and in addition the preparation to change and gain from everybody even from the understudies. Instructors preparing educational programs additionally should be overhauled as educators should themselves be students and carefully taught to be equipped for utilizing these ICT apparatuses

Chapter 2: Literature Review

In the chapter, the past research of various authors on the use of digital media and technology in the educational sector will be discussed in detail. This thesis will be built upon the hypothesis and conclusions of the secondary research already present on the internet in renowned journals. The technologies that have been used in the educational sector in various developed countries and their impacts will be mentioned.

2-Literature Review

In the past couple of decades, research into newer technologies and their effectiveness in the field of education has been studied by a number of scholars. The impact of using these revolutionary technologies and the resultant positive effect on the quality of education is a leading pathway towards the use of digital media in promoting education globally. Research concludes that indeed technology and the use of media in the classroom environment have several positive outcomes and can be very effective in improving the learning of the students and also help in enhancing the teaching tactics leading to quality education (Mills, 2010). Using digital learning tools in classrooms like multimedia, computers and handheld devices in developed countries like the USA and Australia has shown that the experience of the students in the classroom can be enhanced and their engagement and motivation can be substantially increased.

2.1 From Student’s Point of View

Globally, with the inculcation of digital media in education, education is being delivered in ways that were not possible before with inventions like massive open online courses (MOOCs). Research states that three major factors that change digital technology without changing the educational system altogether. The first major change that the use of digital media in education is bringing is that it has made the process of learning and education very flexible. Being flexible means that now students are able to alter the place, the speed or pace and the mode of learning for their degrees.

The use of various online platforms, which are hybrid in nature. Students are now capable of choosing the timings of their class, as well the medium through which they will attend lectures be it on tablets, online Moodle/Blackboard, conference calls etcetera. With the advancement in technology, the educational sector has become exceedingly favourable for working students because now their education integrates well with their other daily obligations. Due to this fundamental shift in the use of technology in the learning atmosphere, the number of students who are now willing to continue their education despite working and having problems in attending regular classes.

Another paradigm shift that has occurred due to the integration of the latest technology in education is that now students are learning the use of technology in addition to traditional education. Such knowledge proves exceptionally important for their future job prospects since the world is now highly dependent on technology and businesses are being run using technological systems. Students are able to learn digital skills in addition to the theory based knowledge that will help them in doing excellent job hunting and will improve their chances of landing higher paying white collar jobs. This fact is another attractive aspect which makes students more inclined towards completing their education and not making the decision to drop out due to other factors. Technology not only makes it time-saving for students to take education but also makes it possible for them to learn digital skills that make them suitable candidates for higher-paying jobs.

Due to the use of media and technology in education, the interaction between students and their teachers has increased exponentially. Furthermore, it is astonishing to see how students from all over the globe are able to take classes from a country far away from them while sitting in their houses in another part of the world. Online colleges, classes and enrollment have allowed people to get admission to overseas universities without physically moving from one country to another.

2.2 From Teacher’s Point Of View

From the point of view of the teachers who are part of a digital media system, this system has made delivering lectures and education easier and flexible. Due to the integration of technology and digital media in education, teachers have found it flexible for imparting knowledge. Teachers have now found ways to create flexible learning material in all digital media formats. Audio, video animations and all sorts of multimedia formats are now available to teachers for creating innovative yet interactive lectures. Within a class setting, through using digital media, teachers are now able to employ various ways of delivering lectures. Rather than using paper to provide resources to students, online mobile files are introduced in classrooms. To support the learning goals of students, the use of these diverse techniques allows teachers to effectively teach. Through molding the classroom material, teachers are supporting students who have constraints and in turn, help students in making the decision to stay in school.

Globally, teachers are able to impart education and knowledge to students from all across the world. Technology has enabled teachers to use the internet and creative digital content to interact actively with all learners globally. This allows students to be more flexible in the ways that they choose to teach and impart knowledge. Now the interaction with students is not just limited to one-on-one meetings with learners. Technologies like video conferencing, voice notes, email and text messaging etcetera.

In the past couple of years, researchers have realized that the educational change that is required can all leave it possible if teachers actively participate in changing the face of education. The teacher’s role is not just limited to delivering regular lectures in the classroom Bart there are major rule is to provide their best effort in the development of skills with instalments. It has now become a teacher‘s responsibility to cope with the latest technology and to make sure that students are not only able to get ready for jobs in the marketplace but also develop the required Digital skills that are now a must for the practical world. However, throughout the world the teachers who embrace innovative technologies are very limited in number and in developed countries. For the success of educational endeavours in developing countries it is extremely important that teachers are encouraged and taught the use of technological tools that will allow them to bring flexibility in the educational sector. For traditional teachers, it is definitely a difficult challenge to learn and adopt the latest technology in the classroom scenario because traditional teachers believe that only knowledge is required for a student to become successful in life. In addition to this, it is also a challenge to make teachers become a learners first in order to learn the use of digital media tools in the classroom setting.

The downside of using digital media in classrooms is that teachers also have to get used to this idea and then spend time and energy in order to the new ways of imparting knowledge. Furthermore, teachers who are so used to their traditional and conventional methods of teaching, have to accept that teaching is still possible without students sitting in a classroom on a fixed time on fixed days. The use of digital media in education does not just bring a massive change in the overall educational system but its success entirely relies on the shift in teacher’s attitudes towards using newer methods in classrooms. The roles and responsibilities of teachers in the digital world have surprisingly changed and expanded. For a good teacher, the process of teaching is really smooth. Such teachers make sure that they keep in mind the comfort level of students and their needs in order to deliver the quality education that builds futures and generations to come. These teachers do not shy away from learning new tools and methodologies to become even better teachers for the achievement of the academic goals of all students. In order to make students willing to attend classes and not leave school for other endeavours, a teacher’s responsibility is to make them feel valued. Rather than showing discontent with the use of new tools and media in classrooms, a teacher should make sure that they communicate to the students that such measures have been taken to ensure comfort for working students because the educational system understands the dilemmas students are going through.

2.3 Development in Education Due to Digital Media

In the technologically advanced 21st century the concept of teaching and learning is not limited to just within the four walls of a traditional classroom. Due to the advancement in digital media and technology, the process of teaching and learning has expanded. Now due to constant access to the Internet, a vast amount of information is available to students and it has become possible for teachers to use a variety of teaching tools that make this process a flexible one. To achieve better results with the use of media and technology, teachers need to adapt to new situations. The traditional practices of teaching styles have to be changed immensely in order for the new techniques and technologies to give positive results. In favour of teachers, they have always changed their teaching styles and methodology to cope with the changing needs of students. The fact is that it is circumstantial factors of the students that make it difficult for them to attend school regularly or even continue their academic careers.

The use of digital media also includes developing online platforms where students can find all educational resources and materials which aid them in learning. There are several students who, in the past under tough circumstances, have chosen to opt out of gaining education in favour of earning. The reason is that they are not privileged and have to earn in order to support themselves in a host country (Johnstone, 2005). Taking classes and being present on the job simultaneously is impossible and failing courses due to unavailability of the course material is de-motivating. with the use of digital media in education, the students who are working constantly have the ease to take material off the online platforms whenever they are free rather than having to attend all classes in order to gain access to course resources (Purdy et al, 2015). Research by Johnstone shows that digital media like Moodle in Australian universities are a great and engaging way of promoting education and also create ease for the hard-working students working jobs to support themselves and fund their education.

A paper by Buckingham and Willett in 2013 talks about online education and the ways it has helped in promoting education and making it accessible to students living in remote areas of the world. Virtual or online learning is the latest trend gaining popularity in developed countries across the globe (Buckingham & Willett, 2013). Students can take online courses at their ease and education is made accessible to anywhere the internet prevails. Spreading and promoting education has become easier with the introduction and popularity of virtual learning programs.

Initially, this media use was limited to a number of courses but with advancements in technology, now full-time online schools have been architected digitally which allows the students to attend school sitting at home. Digital media is presenting a newer possibility for home schooling (Dillon, 2008). Online schools are a great opportunity for students who are not able to attend school have dropped out of school due to some reason or have been deemed ineligible to graduate from a high school for any particular reason. Research has proved that digital media is reshaping the educational (Roblyer, 2006). Using digital media, the educational systems worldwide can find a working solution for the drop out problem.

Through digital media, the educational material is now easily accessible in the public domain which makes learning and developing skills easier for the students. Rather than just limiting themselves to what is being taught in class, young minds have the opportunity to indulge in self-study due to the use of digital media (Haughey, 2009). In addition to this, students can also learn skills that intrigue them or are useful for part-time earning. Therefore it can be rightfully said that digital media promotes both formal and informal education because people have been reported to learn new crafts and skills using the online data and resources that can be accessed anywhere (Downes, 2007).

Digital media is especially a blessing when cross-lingual education is in question. Using the official language of the world in education is one of the major ways through which countries can prepare students for international and better jobs. Teaching and making education understandable for the students in a language that is alien to them is more difficult than one can imagine. Students with varied cross-lingual calibre can have varied levels of difficulties in coping with the education pressure (Pirnajmmudin and Baya, 2017). Often students fail to reasonably understand the new language enough to pass. Even if they do their courses, their learning is limited due to the traditional methods of teaching. Here the use of digital media can prove to be a blessing. Using varied media tools such as audio, video, pictures and animations, teaching a new language becomes bearably easier (Cavus and Ibrahim, 2009). Cavus and Ibrahim have successfully shown in their studies that new English words can be taught to people new to this language using the text message feature of smartphones.

2.4 Why Students Need Digital Media In Education

Research shows that there are several reasons for students needing technology in classroom settings all over the world. Now the world is becoming digitized and people need to be proficient in the use of mobile devices and applications that run on it. By using mobile phones and educational applications in the classrooms, students will utilize a chance to prepare themselves for their future careers. Due to their individual differences, every student has a different learning style, with the integration of technology in the everyday classroom setting will prove to be an effective way of connecting with students with varied learning styles. Technology use in classrooms can allow students to effectively collaborate with peers, making them more social in the process. A student’s digital citizenship skills can be developed in the event when technology is inculcated to aid the educational process.

Integrating technology and digital media into education is easier said than done. It requires several strategies for successful implementation which will allow the promotion as well as easy accessibility of education. Research studies show that good analogies and media are especially effective when students are getting an education in a foreign language. One of the middle examples of using digital media for learning of foreign language is in educational institutes in Saudi Arabia where technology is being used to teach students in English language which is completely new to them.

However, without media literacy on a global scale, the effectiveness of digital media and technology in education will be reduced. The major strategy for harnessing the maximum advantage from the integration of digital media in education is to develop media literacy throughout the globe. Not only do students need to know about media literacy but educational institutes, governments, teachers, parents and other relevant authorities need to be highly educated about the positive aspects of using the latest technology to make education easier for students.

2.5 Developing Countries

In countries like Pakistan, the use of digital media in education is a foreign concept. The reason is that such countries are not as technologically advanced as compared to developed nations like the United States of America. Developing countries around the globe need to understand the potential of digital technology in revolutionizing the educational sector. It is now time to start adapting to the new technologies that are making the education system more flexible for the needs of the students because the aim of the educational system is the bin knowledge and skill set of the students. However, in this busy students have to earn in order to survive without adequate bit until supervision and financial support, the needs obviously didn’t have changed.

It has now become impossible for students to attend classes like a traditional student did in the last century. Now educational institutions have to build systems that allow the students to take classes whenever it suits them and wherever it suits them. Coming to university campuses for classes is no longer a necessity in many modern educational institutions around the globe. One of the major reasons for this flexibility in the educational system is the widespread availability of mobile networks, cloud-based learning, computer power and internet technology. When combined together in a specific manner, these new technologies have added up to a new system where students find it flexible and easier to continue their academic careers without worrying about losing jobs.

The present kids are “growing up advanced.” Their perspective of the world is altogether different from that of grown-ups, because of extraordinary access to data, individuals, and thoughts crosswise over exceptionally intuitive media. The present kids are the most recent model of individuals. Taking a gander at the universe of kids isn’t taking a gander at our own particular past- it’s looking forward. They are our developmental future.

Be that as it may, it additionally proposes the most concerning issue in the instructing learning process in the present computerized age. A typical situation today is a classroom loaded with carefully proficient understudies being instructed by straight-thinking, innovatively discouraged educators. Understudies have been presented to these advances or comparable ones from the get-go amid their developmental years while their educators have quite recently been presented to it just as of late. Subsequently, the understudies are here and there more proficient with the innovation. Regardless of this educators are once in a while allowed to figure out how to utilize this innovation teachers are given the apparatuses, however not the information. Instructors progressively are taking in the innovation time permitting.

Understudies on the other are sufficiently sure to utilize these innovative headways successfully and they very much want more on customary strategies for educating and learning. Students now have the opportunity to investigate, find and ask whatever they need.

Chapter 3: Research Methodology

In the chapter, the philosophy of this research will be discussed, alongside the limitations of various options that are available for carrying out this thesis. A discussion about the nature of this study and reasons for choosing a particular method of study will be included. The structure of sampling, research analysis tools and the ethics of this research will be introduced.

3-Research Methodology

The research is quantitative in nature, therefore, quantitative research techniques will be utilized to investigate the required hypothesis. For the purpose of gathering information, specific and thoughtful questionnaires will be floated among students of various universities and colleges to understand their insight regarding the role and use of digital media in promoting education. The questionnaire will be based on close-ended questions all inclined towards finding out the impact of digitization on education from the point of view of students. A sample of 100 students between the ages of 18-22 years will be chosen through convenient sampling. Google questionnaires will be used.

3.1 Data Collection Method

This thesis is a mixed method thesis, it will use both qualitative as well as quantitative methods of research to take an in-depth view of the use of digital media for the aim of promoting education. For credibility and reliability, it is important that the most appropriate research tools are chosen for the purpose of collecting primary and secondary data. After finalizing the research parameters, the secondary research will be carried out by studying the existing research that has been done by other authors on similar topics. The purpose of studying the majority of research regarding the use of digital media in education is to understand the conclusions that have been drawn already to take inspiration from the work already done and research a different aspect of this topic. In addition to this, secondary research proves beneficial when the investigator will be taking questions for the primary research collection through questionnaires. The secondary data collection can be carried out using the techniques of observation, interviews and arranging focus groups but for the thesis, the use of existing documents (research) will be done.

After research has been addressed, the next step is the designing of a questionnaire that is easy to understand and fill out and has the potential to investigate the hypothesis in a limited set of questions. The fact that the respondents of this questionnaire are students, the comprehension and understanding level of the respondents should be kept in mind while formulating the questionnaire. For the ease of the participants, the questionnaire will not be very long. It will include all close-ended questions because opinionated answers cannot be measured quantitatively. The questions will be based on the experience of students in terms of the ease and flexibility that digital media has provided them in education.




Method of Data Collection


Reason for choice


Sample Size

Criteria for Choosing Sample
Students Questionnaire The most appropriate tool for collecting primary data is a quantitative research method. 100 or more Maximum diversity to reflect the diversity of students who are aware of digital media and its impact on the promotion of education.


3.2 Sampling

For the purpose of carrying out any research, there are a number of techniques available to the researchers in order to collect data. However, before the collection of data is made possible, it is highly important that the population from which data will be collected is correctly identified. Generally, the population that is chosen has a set of distinct characteristics that sets them apart from other populations in general. These characteristics may include age, gender, occupation, nationality, colour etcetera.

For the purpose of this thesis, the most appropriate population is students because the aim of this study is to understand the role of digital media in the promotion of education and the point of view of the students who drop out due to various other factors need to be understood. By understanding the student’s perspective, it will be easier to conclude the effectiveness of digital media in the promotion of education. The population is students aged between 18 and 24. The major objective of any thesis is to provide conclusions that are true for the whole of the population. For this purpose, the selection of the sample needs to be done carefully so that all characteristics of the population are well-balanced in the sample. It is best to choose a sample with the maximum diversity from among the overall population.

There are several techniques that can be used by investigators for the purpose of selecting a sample from the population. These include simple or random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified sampling, cluster sampling and multistage sampling. To research it is concluded that for including maximum diversity to reflect all the characteristics of the population the most suitable sampling technique is stratified sampling. For the purpose of carrying out stratified sampling, a few steps need to be followed in order. The whole population needs to be broken down into several groups based on their common features.

These separate groups are known as strata. For the purpose of stratified sampling, various strata need to be organized. However, it is very difficult to obtain all the relevant information regarding separate strata in a limited amount of time. Due to time constraints, the most convenient and simple technique that can be used for this thesis is convenient sampling. From the overall population hundred students will be selected at random to fill out the questionnaire that has been specifically designed to understand the perspective of young minds regarding the role digital media plays in order to promote education and make the educational system flexible.

Primary data collection becomes very easy after the sampling technique has been decided. By using the convenient sampling technique it will be very easy and convenient for the investigators to collect necessary information to validate the hypothesis of this thesis. Students from various educational institutions can be approached in order to fill out the questionnaire. The questionnaire is designed in a manner that all close-ended questions have specific options. The filling of these questionnaires will be easier and the questions are designed using easy vocabulary for better comprehension.

3.3 Research Ethics

In order to complete a research study, keeping in mind and abiding by research ethics becomes extremely important for the purpose of a valid study. It is extremely important that the research investigators pay huge attention to all research ethics and handle the study carefully. Research shows that there are five major principles with regard to research ethics that should be followed by all investigators when carrying out their thesis study. The first principle is to make sure that there is no risk of harm to any of the respondents who have agreed to fill out the questionnaires given to them. This second important ethic that needs to be followed is that all the participants of the study should willingly participate in the study.

No respondent should be forced to take part in the study by forcing them to fill out the questionnaire. There should not be any deception in the collection of primary data. The participants of the study should be clearly informed about the aims and objectivity of this thesis and no information should be withheld. The respondent should not be given any hints with regard to answers. The personal information provided by the participants should be kept confidential and should not be used openly in the final report if the respondents have specifically mentioned that they want to remain anonymous. Their personal information should only be included in the report if the participants have agreed to it.

One of the major rules to be followed in the study is to provide participants with sufficient information before taking answers from them. To keep the personal information of the participants confidential, the names of any students will not be mentioned in the thesis. Instead of using actual names code names will be used for four examples student 1, student 2 et cetera. Lastly, all participants have the right to draw the questionnaire from the study at any point in time. By following these ethics, the validity and credibility as well as reliability of the thesis will be preserved.

4-   References

Mills, K. A. (2010). A review of the “digital turn” in the new literacy studies. Review of Educational Research80(2), 246-271.

Johnstone, S. M. (2005). Open educational resources serve the world. Educause Quarterly28(3), 15.

Buckingham, D., & Willett, R. (Eds.). (2013). Digital generations: Children, young people, and the new media. Routledge.

Dillon, S. (2008). Online schooling grows, setting off a debate. New York Times, A1.

Roblyer, M. D. (2006). Virtually successful: Defeating the dropout problem through online school programs. Phi Delta Kappan88(1), 30-35.

Haughey, M. (2009). Growth of online schooling in Canada. In Encyclopedia of Distance Learning, Second Edition (pp. 1060-1065). IGI Global.

Downes, S. (2007). Models for sustainable open educational resources. Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Learning and Learning Objects3(1), 29-44.

Cavus, N., & Ibrahim, D. (2009). m‐Learning: An experiment in using SMS to support learning new English language words. British journal of educational technology40(1), 78-91.

Pirnajmmudin, H. and Bayat, S.(2017). Global Journal of Foreign Language Teaching. Language Teaching7(1), pp.46-57.

Purdy, E., Thoma, B., Bednarczyk, J., Migneault, D., & Sherbino, J. (2015). The use of free online educational resources by Canadian emergency medicine residents and program directors. Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine17(2), 101-106.



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