Academic Master


What are the effects of loyalty programs/schemes on the repeated purchase behavior of consumers?


Loyalty programs join humankind’s aggressive nature with the consumer’s affection for accepting free stuff. To what extent do loyalty program offers make the existing customers turn into long-term- purchasers of the company’s goods? How do retailers increase the customers’ basket size through loyalty programs? The study discusses these questions based on the answers obtained from the respondents. These motivator programs help manufacture customer loyalty through promotion. Customer retention is exceptionally essential in any company that would like to flourish in a very aggressive and overflowed business showcase. Consumer fascination is said to be more troublesome than retention, and this is where the problem of consumer relation management comes in. Retaining an existing customer is way cheaper than attracting a new customer. Since the retention and fulfillment of customers aren’t as troublesome as pulling in them, what should a company do, keeping in mind the end goal of guaranteeing that retention does not turn into a monster undertaking over the span of the company? The paper gives a view of how people like the companies that are offering loyalty programs to them and how people use the rewards and benefits associated with loyalty programs.

Executive Summary

The discoveries of this examination can give a superior comprehension of the connection between consumer loyalty and client certainty for the long term and the fundamental effects of loyalty programs on consumers. The target information was obtained from random members of the society who were familiar with using loyalty programs.

Three hypotheses were developed using a quantitative approach to the research method, and information to cater to the research questions was obtained from individuals using loyalty programs. Consumers’ tendency for long-term purchase behavior towards the brands offering loyalty programs, the effect of such programs on the volume of usage(bucket size), and the different responses towards loyalty schemes as per purchasing level are analyzed in the study. The analysis provides a comprehension of the relationship between loyalty programs as the independent variable and dependent variables, such as consumers’ tendency to be long-term purchasers of the company services and products and band bucket size. Along these lines, numerous kinds of research were consolidated.

The necessary findings of the investigations are;

  • Consumers’ tendency to be long-term purchasers is positively related to the effectiveness and number of loyalty programs.
  • Consumers’ certainty is decidedly affected by the rewards and their alignment with their needs and wants regarding product use.
  • The devotion of consumers is emphatically influenced by fulfillment and saw an incentive at the store and trust in the store;
  • On the qquantity-basedvisits to the store and the rrelatedspending at the store, no noteworthy contrast was found between the self-report of clients and their real conduct.
  • The frequency of the visits to the stores the loyalty programs offers enhancing purchase capacity has a positively colossal impact attitude of consumers towards the supermarket.

The vast majority of the discoveries affirm past research done about this theme. Notably, tthere arespeculations concerning the immediate connection (and drivers) of consumer loyalty and client devotion.are considered. In any case, the impact of arbitrators on the connection between consumer loyalty and client faithfulness was not definitive among staple customers of the retailers.

Chapter 1. Introduction

Background of the Study 

Loyalty programs are offers that include some extra value to the product that consumers come to buy from the store repeatedly. Consumers’ behavior of buying the same products over and over is called brand loyalty. Repeated purchase behavior can be caused by the quality or price attributes of the products. Such buying behavior is essential for businesses to hold a share in the market on a consistent basis, and they not only want to maintain such but are l likely to enhance that businesses use various techniques to make the customers loyal to the brands they sell. Loyalty programs are designed and launched not only to maintain the existing loyalty of the consumers but also to enhance the existing loyalty to the brand. Almost every type of business uses this technique to make consumer behavior more loyal to the brand (Stathopoulou and Balabanis, 2016). Persuading the consumers to 1purchase the same products and shunning the competitors is the primary objective of the loyalty programs. Elements of loyalty programs vary according to the nature of the company and its marketing strategies and goals.

The highly competitive global market situation of today has made businesses operate more innovatively and proactively. Market and consumer research programs are widely in vogue by big businesses all over the world. Industries are striving to stay in the market and hold as large a market share as possible (Oliver, 2014). Fast-moving consumer goods companies are especially conscious about attaining repeat purchase behavior of consumers and retaining it through various marketing tools and techniques such as loyalty programs. Using loyalty programs for consumer retention is becoming popular day by day in fast-moving consumer goods companies mainly because the nature of the industry implies regular manufacture and sale of goods on a daily basis. Hence, they need to focus on the buying behavior of consumers more extensively (Bhate, 2012). Numerous retail companies and food chains have adopted loyalty programs.

Objectives of Loyalty programs

The prime purpose of loyalty programs is to retain the existing repeated purchase behavior of consumers. Acquiring new customers involves more CPA, i.e., Cost per Acquisition, than maintaining current customers. A loyalty program may offer specific discounts and rewards (Berezan et al., 2015).

Collecting the relevant market data is another purpose loyalty programs serve the company. Data obtained about the demographics of the consumers may provide a base knowledge for devising future ultra-targeted marketing. However, the use of such data is a sensitive matter in regard to the privacy of consumers. Besides, loyalty programs may increase consumers’ purchases by adding value to their wallets (Kang, Alejandro, and Groza, 2015). Motivating existing customers to spend more is much more comfortable and cost-effective than motivating those who are infrequent purchasers of the products.

Benefits of loyalty programs

Loyalty programs offer benefits to both the customers and the company. The most significant benefit loyalty programs have offered to the retail companies is the referrals. Research has indicated 73% members of the retail loyalty clubs reported they were going to recommend the company to their friends (Soderlund and Colliander, 2015).

Real-time factor

To involve consumers in the right sense, companies need to reach them on their conditions. A recent innovation of FIS, Premium Payback, an extension of a traditional loyalty program, provides consumers with full rewards with some additional redemption vehicles much more in synchronization with the needs and expectations of the customers for gaining real-time rewards (Melnyk and Bijmolt, 2015).

Objectives of such loyalty programs are to surprise the audiences with delight at the point of sales. These are used at fuel stations and eliminate the hurdles in customers’ journeys.

  • Consumers need to swipe their loyalty cards once rather than getting their cards scanned to determine the savings and then swipe cards for payment.
  • Consumers avail of real-time benefits and rewards
  • Customers don’t have to put effort into maintaining and tracking their points or keeping another card from the customer loyalty program.

Such features represent a fundamental shift in reward models. The traditional model of loyalty programs suggested that you allowed time to consumers and waited for them to get involved with your offer whereas in the case of new model offers are more synchronised with the customer’s daily activities (Voorhees et al., 2015). You proactively approach customers’ daily routine activities and follow their individual customer journeys.

Through loyalty programs, retail businesses such as fast moving consumers’ goods sellers have an opportunity to prove them unique and obtain a competitive advantage.

Benefit of Loyalty Programs to Consumers

Customers are interested in loyalty programs primarily because of the discounts and freebies attached to them, and frequent users of loyalty programs are excited to get maximum rewards and take those as a source of entertainment. Some of the customers find it exclusive to be a member of the loyalty club of the retail company. Traditionally, loyalty programs are aimed at engaging consumers through the company website (Kang, Alejandro, and Groza, 2015). The problem with such a legacy model of loyalty programs is that it asks for the effort and time of consumers; for instance, if they choose a merchandise option, they have to wait for the delivery of the rewards. Sixty-three percent of the target audience participates in loyalty programs, whereas only 19 percent of them use them regularly.

The most significant problem with retail loyalty programs is that they fail to engage customers throughout. Especially for online rewards programs, consumers sign up, but only half of them participate actively (Oliver, 2014).

Loyalty Programs and Customer Retention

A client dependability program is a persuading power configuration planned to build go over the business by offering taking an intrigue clients rewards for their purchases or remarkable favorable circumstances that aren’t open to non-taking intrigue clients. Client steadfastness thoughts are routinely settled as unwaveringness cards, which, much of the time, look like plastic charge cards; however, they can moreover be made as keychain fobs, paper punch cards, or stickers (Stathopoulou and Balabanis, 2016).

A solidified yogurt shop, for example, may offer you a punch card on your first visit. Each time you impact ice cream, you will get a one-of-a-kind punched opening on your card. Punch each one of the openings, and you’ve fit the bill for a specific reward, which could be free solidified yogurt, a blessing voucher, or whatever else the pastry shop has selected as a prize. This loyal punch cardboard fills in as the well-known carrot; clients are asked to keep returning for solidification in foreknowledge of punching through each one of the openings on their card and, in conclusion, getting their prize. Dependability programs join mankind’s forceful nature with the buyer’s warmth for tolerating free stuff. The buyer is made happy by their reward, while the encouraging business gathers together more advantages and grabs that client’s loyalty. These inspiration programs help fabricate client faithfulness through advancement (Hofacker, Malthouse, and Sultan, 2016).

Client maintenance is uncommonly fundamental in any organization that might want to prosper in an extremely forceful and flooded business feature. The interest of buyers is said to be more troublesome than maintenance, and this is where the issue of purchaser connection administration comes in. Research shows that holding one present client is six to seven a greater number of times more profitable than attracting another (Wu, Mattila, and Hanks, 2015). Since maintenance and satisfaction of clients aren’t as troublesome as pulling in them, what should an organization do, remembering the true objective to ensure that support does not transform into a beast undertaking over the traverse of the organization? To get a more significant hand on client maintenance in connection with organization accomplishment, this paper discusses the essentialness and criticalness of client maintenance in connection to imperative administration, client satisfaction, client direct, dynamic clients, and maintenance exhibiting and client connection administration.

Client maintenance has been portrayed as the method of intentionally and persistently attempting undertakings towards lessening client surrender and extending their devotion towards a given organisation undertaking. Client maintenance begins when the organization sets up the essential contact with the capacity of a client and continues throughout the entire future of the undertaking. Client maintenance is updated by client satisfaction, which works out as intended as a result of giving the client more than they ask for or foresee. It’s more about the estimation of the client than it is tied to making benefits (Kandampully, Zhang, and Bilgihan, 2015). Client maintenance is the point of convergence of imperative organizing and monitoring. In the book Customer rRelationshipManage: An Overall Perspective, client maintenance is a game plan of activities that impact clients to get a high position arranging through the trading strategy, accordingly affecting them to arrange for dynamic acquiring.

In any case, it should be comprehended that there are two sorts of client maintenance, one of them is think and uncommonly effective, and another that is moderately excited and can impact the clients to leave at whatever point they are given a predominant alternative (Lee, Tsang and Pan, 2015). The central kind of client maintenance is dedication, which is just purposeful and client-driven, inferring that clients remain with a given association despite when they have the opportunity to shop or move elsewhere. The other shape is constrained, inferring that clients simply require genuine or legitimate believability on which they can circle from one given association or authority center to another. Regardless, by allowing extraordinary terms, they would circle without the smallest faltering (Mochon et al., 2016). In this condition, faithfulness is when the provider begins suggesting that the business or monetary terms make leaving unbelievable or exorbitant.

Client reliability can be delineated as both attitudinal and also behavioral slant to help one brand over others. It is routinely a direct result of various components, for instance, the satisfaction with the item, the solace of the item, or even the acknowledgment of the brand. Client faithfulness, as often as possible, requires the clients to shop more solidly, spend a mind-blowing offer of money, and, in this way, act like the shopping foundation. If an association needs to create client devotion, it must start by settling on a decision (Wu, Mattila, and Hanks, 2015). This decision should be to put the client at the point of convergence of everything that one does and at the point of convergence of the association, the step-by-step plans, and the way they layout the web outlines. Regardless, it is critical to appreciate that the client’s within is a more confounded endeavor than it sounds.

Online Loyalty programs

Online stores are another point of sale that can involve consumers with loyalty programs. In today’s era, every consumer is a modern consumer expecting immediate responses and gratifications from the companies they give profit to in the shape of purchases they make. A survey by A.T. Kearney in 2016 found that less than eight percent of the people were willing to wait for a week or so for the delivery (Yoo and Park, 2016).

Theoretical Framework

Repeated purchase behavior has been conceptualized in terms of loyalty towards the products of the same manufacturer or service provider. Loyalty has been considered on the basis of two purchasing patterns, one is the frequency of purchase of the same brand, and the other one is the volume of purchase of the same brand (brown, 1952). Wu, Mattila, and Hanks (2015) investigated the relationship between the variables of brand trust and brand loyalty and indicated a significant relationship between both. Trust is directly related to loyalty (Do, Matos, and Caiado, 2016). So et al. (2016) also found a strong relationship between the loyal purchase attitude of consumer and their trust in the respective brand.

Marketing specialists concluded that brand loyalty on the part of the customers is a useful phenomenon that can be used for regular sales, sales prediction, and long-term financial goals of the business. Such an approach is widely adopted by commodities retailers, and positive results of loyalty marketing brought a range of industries to launch loyalty marketing programs (Ailawadi et al., 2014). Besides, bringing new customers and non-frequent purchasers’ purchase behavior aligned with the goals of the business is much more costly than Attracting new customers compared to retaining existing frequent purchasers (Wu, Mattila, and Hanks, 2015).

The recently developed terms for customer relationship management, participative marketing, customer retention marketing, relationship marketing, customer bonding, loyalty marketing, or one-to-one marketing all have two common features. Firstly, they incorporate techniques and efforts to develop an element of loyalty in consumers for a brand of products or services provided by a business, and secondly, are impacting the developments of industries and strategic management in a substantially growing manner (Watson et al., 2015). The marketing strategies across all the businesses in the market have the common objective of getting as close to the purchase behavior of the customer as possible. Loyalty programs are one of the most effective strategies to get the services and products so aligned with the personal needs and wants of the individual that they become permanent consumers of the brand seamlessly. Such loyalty programs are mainly devised to retain the current customers who already have a favorable purchase behavior for the products of the company (Hanks and Mattila, 2014).

Chapter 2: Literature Review

The rationale of the Study

Though there is a great deal of impact of loyalty programs on the repeated buying behaviour of consumers, not a great deal of research-based knowledge exists on this marketing strategy’ relation to the eco-psychological behaviour of the individuals. This study is aimed at enhancing the academic knowledge and contribute to the research on marketing strategic technique and their effects.

The study aims at investigation on the status of loyalty programs in customer retention practices by companies. It was studied that to what extent the planned actions and expectations of the company devised for the loyalty programs match the customer’s needs, wants and expectations. Such analysis was done by comparing the answers obtained from the management to the answers received from the customers in the survey (Watson et al., 2015).

Businesses are particular about the direction of their loyalty programs and their standing in the market. However, customers have different expectations and visions of a customer loyalty program (Thompson, Newman, and Liu, 2014). To analyze the success of loyalty programs, it is important to explore if the planned action of the company through loyalty programs is in congruency with customers’ satisfaction needs and wants.

The investigation also looks at how loyalty programs can be used to make the customers’ behavior loyal and permanent towards not only the products and services of the company but also towards an overall customer-oriented image of the company (Kandampully, Zhang, and Bilgihan, 2015). It also aims to develop an understanding of the needs and wants of the customers by indicating the differences and similarities between the ideas and expectations of the consumers and those of the company’s management regarding loyalty programs.

Another objective to conduct this survey is to highlight the areas in which the loyalty programs need to be improved. It was done by aanalyzingthe answers of customers regarding their satisfaction with the company’s services and answers to interview qquestionsasked fbymanagement.

Competitive Edge

FMCG and Restaurants pervasively offer loyalty programs and have been recently focussing on academic research across countries. Singh and Imran, in their research (2012), indicated how the profit modifications for a short period can result in long-term brand loyalty from customers and, therefore, in long-run profit for the company. The focus of the study was the importance of customer retention and loyalty to the companies. Businesses can benefit by understanding the consumers’ buying patterns based on their socio-economic needs and wants. Building relationships with customers, along with the provision of better-developed service, will contribute majorly to the consumers’ loyalty towards the company’s brands. Researchers gave an understanding of the strategies used to attract customers to the business and its products (Wu, Mattila, and Hanks, 2015).

Wu, Mattila, and Hanks (2015) found in their empirical research that if the ambiguity in the loyalty program is higher, only the rewards associated with the loyalty program can encourage the repeated buying behavior of the customers, and where there is low ambiguity, customers tend to integrate step size with the reward distance. The authors referred to ambiguity as savings, weight loss, and step size as to units such as kilograms and pounds (Lin and Bennett, 2014).

Retail companies are increasingly using loyalty programs as they think it is an important marketing strategy to bring traffic to stores and enhance the spending capacity of purchasers so that basket size can be increased and to build long-term relationships with the customers. The efficacy of loyalty programs in attracting customers’ interest and loyalty is a growing concern in the circle of marketing professionals. Service quality and other factors are important in retailers’ loyalty programs. (Haj-Salem and Chebat, 2014).

Loyalty is conceptualized based on the combination of attitude and behavior in a preservative or shared expression. Defining the concept of loyalty is essential while predicting a phenomenon such as retention and search. The repeat purchase behavior is a better predictor of search behavior and retention phenomenon. The interaction does not play a very important role in the outcomes of loyalty programs. No single form of loyalty program can predict the results (Watson et al., 2015).

Trust has received a lot of attention in previous studies. Watson et al. (2015) stated that “the variable most universally accepted as a basis of any human interaction or exchange is trust.”

The importance of trust is highlighted in both industrial and consumer markets. In the latter market, Haj-Salem and Chebat (2014) examined the link between brand trust and brand loyalty and found a significant positive association. Watson et al., (2015) found that trust is directly related to loyalty. These findings are further supported by them who examined the supportive evidence for the association between brand trust and purchase and attitudinal loyalty.

Haj-Salem and Chebat (2014) stated that customer satisfaction is positively related to customer loyalty, which in turn is positively related to profitability. This research discussed the first part of the relation: customer satisfaction leads to customer loyalty. Several studies have shown that customer satisfaction is positively affected by customer loyalty. A number of researchers investigated the impact of trust, satisfaction, and perceived value on customer loyalty.

Prior research has indicated the perceived value as a significant determinant of customer loyalty. Haj-Salem and Chebat (2014) found a significant effect of perceived value on customer loyalty in the telephone service. They found the same positive impact in the retailing service and online travel.

Lewis, in 2004, introduced a consumer response model assuming that the purchase pattern of consumers represents their choices. His hypothetical model was based on a discrete-choice dynamic encoding design. The research was based on a few specific online stores’ loyalty programs, and the stores specialized in selling groceries and drugs. The results of the study suggest that loyalty programs were successful as they substantially increased the yearly purchases of a more significant proportion of consumers. Customer relationship management also benefits from loyalty programs, especially for airlines and other travel service businesses, along with hospitality service firms such as hotels and restaurants (Mochon et al., 2016).

Consumers’ satisfaction with the products is the basic element of success for companies in business for long-term competition. Customer retention depends upon customer satisfaction, as satisfaction with products is central to repeat purchase behavior development. Henning and Klee’s study on customer retention was a conceptualization of investigating the process of customer retention using the concepts of consumer satisfaction and relationship quality (do, Matos, and Caiado, 2016). The research critically examined the relationship between customers’ satisfaction and customers’ retention and building a comprehensive view of customers’ perception of quality (Hofacker, Malthouse, and Sultan, 2016)

Wu, Mattila, and Hanks (2015) worked on the role of information technology in devising marketing techniques reaching consumers at the individual level, widening the use of loyalty programs across industries, including financial institutions and gaming businesses. The author investigates the situations in which loyalty programs have positive effects on the evaluation of consumers’ buying behavior and choices. Thompson, Newman, and Liu (2014) conducted a cross-sectional study using the time series data of a globally operating financial services organization offering loyalty programs (Ailawadi et al., 2014). The results suggested that loyalty club members discounted the negative evaluation of the company, which indicated they were satisfied with the services provided by the company compared to their price. A model of influence that loyalty programs have on the repurchase decision-making process of the customers and the volume of usage of the services and products. A number of direct and indirect influences on dependent variables of repurchase and volume of use were studied in the research. The authors suggest that using this model will help understand the effects of loyalty programs on customer retention (Meyer, 2015).

Dowling & Uncles, in their research on customer retention and loyalty programs in 1997, described three basic lessons that their study offered. Firstly, the central reason for launching loyalty programs is to fight the competition in the market. Secondly, the purpose of loyalty programs, if not adding value to the products and services, then grabbing more distributors towards the product might be the reason for launching such programs (So et al., 2016). Thirdly, loyalty programs might be based on Tata from market research.

Lee, Tsang, and Pan (2015) explained some of the main factors that are considered by customers when they evaluate loyalty programs are the value of the rewards offered, the probability of being the recipient of those rewards, and whether the rewards will get to them or not. The chances of getting the rewards are associated with the buying thresholds and the time restriction

The effects of the loyalty program are positive in the long run and on customers’ evaluation and purchase behavior. Consumers can be brought to experience the full range of services if the rewards of loyalty programs increase the relationship duration with customers and volume of usage.

Loyalty programs tend to enhance the customer’s satisfaction with the products which results in long term financial benefits to the company. Most of the times the financial benefits gained through loyalty programs are greater than the money invested in them.

Jacoby and Chestnut described different phases of loyalty in their study on customers’ loyalty in 2015, and a similar contribution was made by Soderlund and Colliander in 2015. Meyer, in 2015, elaborated on the construct of loyalty by designing a detailed framework representing the different forms of loyalty.

Initial understanding of forms of loyalty refers to the beliefs and thoughts of a person that make him or her give priority to something over others of a similar nature. Lee, Tsang, and Pan (2015) believe that effective loyalty implies some favorable attitude or purchase behavior based on satisfied usage. The third form of loyalty is conative loyalty, which implies the building of intentions based upon the high levels of commitment on the part of users. Fourthly, there is action loyalty that involves transforming the conative loyalty into actual purchase action.

Ailawadi et al., (2014) developed a model of framework explaining the relationship between an individual’s attitude towards company and the repeat purchase behaviour. Attitude is referred to as a function of appraisal serving tn object.

Customers who are satisfied are likely to form positive attitudes that will turn into customer loyalty coming from more frequent purchases of large volumes of goods and services of the respective business. A positive and favorable attitude of individuals towards the company helps improve the image of the company in the market and its position, along with building up a long-term relationship with the customers. A combination of consumer store attitude and repeat purchase patterns, according to Dick and Base, leads to the development of four combinations of conditions (Kang, Alejandro, and Groza, 2015).

A lower relative attitude combined with a lower repeat purchase behaviour represents that there is no loyalty at all, this phenomenon of no loyalty at all may be resultant of a quite a new store in the market. If the store is a new entry into the market, consumers may be doubtful about its doubts (Lee, Tsang and Pan, 2015).

Research has exhibited that holding clients is more moderate than securing new ones, and the client experience administrators can be delineated as the most fiscally clever way by which individuals can drive client satisfaction, client devotion, and maintenance. It is fundamental to observe that unflinching clients every now and again reduce the value that is connected with buyer preparation and publicizing especially when they transform into the Net promoters for your affiliation (Yadao, Ray, and Srivastava, 2014).

Given the exceedingly irritated-centered scene that exhibits, the client experience projects can be delineated as the ideal routes concerning the detachment of a relationship from the restriction. It is the encapsulation to understand that such detachment feasibly drives customer dependability when the shoppers are possessed with an energetic, insightful, and also extraordinary level. The client can satisfactorily treasure the thing and advantage, in the midst of and after its use (Wu et al., 2014).

A more down-to-earth objective for associations is consistent in making the clients dependable, which is irrational. A more functional target for associations is, henceforth, to make clients as relentless as could be normal in light of the current situation. Along these lines, there is a need to help the client offer exchange pay, repeat of obtainment, and, what’s more, broad productivity (Kauri, Dura, and Sharma, 2015). The objective of associations and unwavering ness programs is to guarantee that the affiliation offers client faithfulness in the highest raised sums possible.

Individuals have, as often as possible, portrayed dedication in behavioral situations; for example, if a man makes most purchases in a given thing class from one supplier and pays little regard to the reason, then the individual can be defined as loyal (Karam and Saydam, 2015). A bigger piece of present steadfastness programs has attitudinal devotion. In reality, as behavioral dedication, the attitudinal definitions have now and again been introduced for a long time. The second part of dependability routinely focuses on how able the psychological engagement or association is a substitute brand. For example, some people rave around a thing and make it to their associates, and after that, for no good reason, they often disregard getting it routinely themselves (Lee et al., 2015).

There are two client loyalty programs that companies face every now and again: fuse repetition programs and club investment programs. The repeat programs are routinely expected to give different prizes to clients to buy sometimes and in a couple of liberal aggregates. They regularly help in building what can be depicted as whole-deal reliability with a couple of top-notch clients (Kim, Wang, and Malthouse, 2015). At first, the repeat programs were initiated using transporters, charge card associations, and lodgings.

Recreational programs are often used by various diverse organizations. It is fundamental to observe that the essential firm tintroducingFfrequencyprograms in an industry habitually get the most preferred standpoint. In any case, after contenders respond, frequency programs can frequently transform into a budgetary weight for all the offering associations (Bricci, Fragata, and Antunes, 2016).

The open clubs are often referred to as basin credible to the extent of fabricating a database or getting clients from contenders. In any case, the compelled enlistment clubs are often known to be extraordinary weal, unwavering ness producers (Saleem, Rahman, and Umar, 2015). It is by virtue of the costs and support conditions that keep those with only a transitory excitement for the association’s things, which start from incorporating while holding the buyers accountable for the most significant section of the organization.

Clients can routinely be isolated into a couple of loyalty program customers who are ever exceptional, generous, and alight. The never clients are those that are not affected by loyalty programs and their rousing reward powers in any way (Karam and Saydam, 2015). The Light Dedication program customers are routinely portrayed as having reward program cooperation, and this is every now and again being influenced by the particular inspirations moderate. Overpowering dedication program customers are the buyers who are dynamic and are consistently exceedingly affected by remunerating programs (Bricci, Fragata, and Antunes, 2016).

In spite of the fact that enrollment in faithfulness programs keeps on climbing, and program individuals say they will probably shop at stores that offer prizes to visit clients, desire for these projects is higher than at any other time. As per a study by the reliability showcasing research firm Colloquy, 75% of purchasers say pertinence matters with regard to the prizes that organizations give. Twenty to thirty-year-olds, precisely, have a tendency to react best to “stats-arranged” prizes, for example, by accessing selective items or administrations (Bricci, Fragata, and Antunes, 2016).

One of the most effortless courses for organizations to convey significant prizes is by following acquiring conduct. However, dedication programs that reward individuals in view of purchasing designs are still in the minority and will probably be utilized more by mainstream store stores than by neighborhood vendors. It doesn’t need to be that way. Hyper-local sellers are progressively promoting their innovative faithfulness programs at small and medium-sized organizations, with more straightforward courses for entrepreneurs to convey reliable rewards in light of information caught up in the purpose of the offer (MAMO, H., 2015).

Chapter 3: Methodology

The following research methodology has been applied to conduct the study in order to find the answers to the research questions.

Statement of Problem

Companies’ loyalty programs have an impact on the volume of usage, level of spending, and long-term purchase behavior on the part of consumers.

Hypotheses of the Study:

The following three hypotheses were developed considering the nature of the search questions:

H1: Consumers joining loyalty programs have a positive relationship with the volume of usage.

H2: The more loyalty programs, the more consumers’ long-term purchase behavior towards the brand.

H3: The effectiveness of loyalty programs varies according to the level of spending.

Research Questions

The study aimed to answer the following research questions;

  1. How does the volume of consumers’ usage of the respective brand’s products and services increase after they join the loyalty program offered by the company?
  2. Do the loyalty programs make consumers more long-term purchasers of the brand?
  3. How do the different levels of consumers’ spending capacity respond differently to the loyalty program offers?

Data Collection Method:

Conducting the research through questionnaires and then analyzing them through manual input in the SPSS analysis software was time-consuming time, and the research was supposed to be completed before time. Lack of necessary helping hand would help in handling all these issues, it is preferred to use the secondary data for the analysis, and for this purpose, the best researchers are being selected who had collected the data through direct customer interaction and the database inquiries. The researchers are chosen with a precise interpretation and relevance to the required question’s answers.


Gathering analytical results and interpretational discussions about the overall individual’s behavior is being used.

Data Source

The source of data was a primary source as first-hand information was collected through the secondary data analysis directly obtained from the internet source from a number of different researches. Overall interpretation and analysis of the data is used to understand the behaviour of the customers upon loyalty programs and other sales programs.

Research Instrument

Self-administered secondary data was used to collect information and derive answers to the research questions. More than five different researchers used to understand customer behavior the loyalty programs that increase the sales of goods

Since all the researches were complete and recently published as well as they were based over the customer’s behaviour of the great Britain community so, it is according to the recent trends and marketing schemes as pr observed from the super markets and the other community stores. The main source was the internet from where the officially published and recent reports were obtained.

Research Approach

The quantitative research approach was applied to the study in order to draw inferences from the research questions and hypothesis. The nature of the study involved the measurement of the relationship between the dependent and independent variables that could better be measured by applying a quantitative research approach so that the statistical tools may be applied to draw inferences upon the hypotheses developed to answer the research questions eventually catering the statement of the problem.

Statistical Tools and Computer Applications

Since a good number of research studies were considered for making good analyses, it was required to compile some of the basic results for which the SPSS software was used. It helped to easily calculate the data that was collected from the different research and reports. Microsoft Office Word application was also used to develop one single report of the study to provide a comprehensive description and interpretation of the data in the form of text and graphs.

Chapter 4: Results And Findings

I have taken the secondary data into consideration for information gathering through self-directed analysis, consideration, and goal. The survey overview aims to perceive the components that impact client devotion in the retail industry regarding loyalty marketing programs. Gathering data about the client from different research was the initial segment of the research, while the next step was assembling and analyzing the data about the research, which concluded with repeat buying behavior through loyalty marketing programs. The information obtained in the secondary data study was broken down using the software application SPSS, which provides a thorough analysis. Collected data was dissected with the use of quantitative strategies such as relapse, investigation of the relationship as well as analytical testing (Kim, Wang, and Malthouse, 2015).

Data analyzed from the secondary data consideration was tested to determine the dependability, as indicated by the esteems of Cronbach’s alpha, which signifies the data against a 0.7 level of significance. Cronbach’s alpha‘s suitable estimation mirrors an unwavering inner quality that quantitative data information possesses. Alpha takes both negative and positive esteems; however, esteems that are just positive (not exact, not equivalent to 1) did have critical value. Such a strategy is broadly utilized in strategy measurement. The correlation between the variables was to be broken down in order to utilize the study of the relationship to investigate the direct correlation. Pearson item minute connection coefficient ‘r’ given by Karl Pearson assesses the connection between two factors. On the off chance that the Value of the coefficient can be – 1 or +1 if the factors reflect a substantial relationship if the estimation of the coefficient is in the middle of – 1 and the +1 relationship is less solid emphatically and adversely yet in the event that the esteem is near zero then the relationship is exceptionally feeble. Co-connection between faithfulness projects and client dependability would be broken down (Eason, Bing, and Smothers, 2015).

Relapse examination is the measurable apparatus used to inspect the connection between the award and at least one autonomous factor. Probability appropriation can likewise be utilized for this investigation. Relapse examination mainly tells how the estimation of reliant variables shifts when the estimation of one free factor changes, whereas other autonomous factors are steady (Brashear, Kang, and Groza, 2016). A relapse investigation is valuable for discovering the impact of each independent variable on the relationship. A relapse examination will show how client faithfulness is impacted by the distinctive performing artists in devotion programs kept running by retailers. It will likewise tell which variables of faithfulness programs impact the client’s rehash buy example to a more significant degree. The history of relapse began with a strategy for minimum squares broken down by Legendre in 1805, yet now there are three sorts of relapse investigation – General, numerous relapse, Linear relapse, and various stepwise relapses (Yadao, Ray, and Srivastava, 2014). The most broadly utilized examination is General different relapse investigation, which utilizes all the autonomous variables to shape one direct equation. The minimum number of test estimates is required for the relapse examination, and that size can be at least 50. I have taken a decent number of test sizes with the goal that the examination of the information could give bona fide and exact outcomes (Wu et al., 2014).

An essentialness level or impartial test would be utilized for theory testing. There are a significant number of components that impact the client rehash buy design through unwavering ness programs and turn into the base for client dedication (Bilgihan, Madanoglu, and Ricci, 2016). A co-connection and relapse investigation will be done to examine the positive connection between the factors as per the exploration question.

Impact on Long-term Purchase Behaviour

A more critical take gander at the rundown of objectives talked about above uncovers the way that the devotion program idea predominantly means to accomplish a solid long-haul impact. A client faithfulness program does not make a similar here and now comes about as completes a tempting exceptional offer by means of standard mail or substantial neighborhood promoting. Certain outcomes can be seen somewhat rapidly. Individually, the optional objectives can be accomplished for the time being. Nonetheless, the essential objectives are of a long-haul nature, and just if clients are focused on the faithfulness program, and in this manner to the organization, is the genuine benefit capability of a client reliability program acknowledged after some time? It can take a few years to set up a database that is finished and point by point enough to be utilized for huge-scale promoting exercises (Shi, Prentice, and He, 2014).

A client dedication program does not lead to quick business change and achievement but rather slowly works towards every one of these objectives throughout the months and years of the association with its individuals. No dedication program will have twofold benefits within weeks. However, the relationship that a steadfastness program constructs is exceptionally solid and gainful (Limet al., 2015). From a long-haul viewpoint, there are three other focuses to be considered:

  • With a specific end goal to design and deal with a client reliability program appropriately, an association must understand that devotion program participation is never an objective in itself; however, it is dependably a method for accomplishing their showcasing objectives.
  • No devotion program can be effective if the item behind it isn’t great. A steadfastness program isn’t a cure for value, conveyance, or quality issues. A client unwaveringness program can increase the value of an item; however, it can’t be the esteem. In like manner, the reliability program can’t conquer critical inconsistencies on other unequivocal variables.
  • As individuals are utilized to give data, a specialist co-op holds the obligation to provide something profitable and noteworthy that comes back to them.

Target Audience of Loyalty Programs

The objective gatherings for a client devotion program comprise those clients with whom the supporting organization necessarily needs to create [long-term connections. The essential target amass for an organization’s client dedication program ought to be their most critical clients, the individuals who constitute the real bit of the organization’s business, as securing these connections is indispensable for their future achievement (Bilgihan, Madanoglu, and Ricci, 2016).

Smaller clients and potential clients ought not to be avoided from the dependability program, but rather, the essential concentration ought to be on building up a program that fits the requirements of the best clients. Different clients will even take advantage of such a program, yet organizations will need to target them with ideas that mull over their specific needs.

The choice about whether to characterize the objective gatherings barely or comprehensively depends generally on the objectives of the devotion program. On the off chance that an organization is expecting to set up an entire database of their client base, at that point, a general meaning of target bunches is essential; if the objective is to secure business from current vital records, at that point, the center is more fitting. Another factor to be considered is the means by which potential clients or contenders’ clients are to be drawn nearer (Ashley and Tuten, 2015). Once in a while, an unwavering program can make a flood of new clients for supporting organizations. However, that will rely on the esteem and engaging quality of the arrangement for assistance. Encourage division (for instance, focusing on real clients in particular enterprises) just bodes well if the objective gatherings are not adequately homogenous to be drawn nearer through one program (Inoue and Kent, 2014). Client reliability programs are incredibly adaptable and can cover a few target gatherings, so it is conceivable to stay in contact with clients regardless of whether their propensities change and they move starting with one target gathering or fragment then onto the next.

Market Share by Increasing Basket -Size

Almost all the respondents reported that loyalty programs enhanced their purchase capacity, and most of the time, they used that capacity to purchase more of the brand items in order to get more points for further reward items.

Some of the respondents were insecure about whether they were subject to loyalty programs as they were not frequent purchasers or simply could not maintain and track their point scores to avail themselves of the rewards offered by the loyalty schemes and programs.

Before inspecting regardless of whether the loyalty program has achieved “overabundance faithfulness” (i.e., disturbed ordinary rehash buy designs), we take a gander at the piece of the pie developments that happened. Bilgihan, Madanoglu, and Ricci (2016) did not give an account of the overall industry shifts, but instead, they contended against utilizing piece of the overall industry as a measure of loyalty program achievement/disappointment, taking note of that (an) “abundance devotion” is conceivable with no, or a little, market share pick up, and (b) loyalty programs are characteristically protective speaking to existing and more massive purchasing clients so they ought not to be required to have any stamped level of effect on penetration (Shi, Prentice and He, 2014).

The real impact of the loyalty+ program on a piece of the pie in the market is hard to survey within a brief period. In any case, if analyzed deliberately, these board figures do toss significant light on the theme. The shares of the overall industry when the loyalty program was dispatched appeared in Table One (Shi, Prentice, and He, 2014). The pre-dispatch pieces of the pie are figured utilizing a coordinated example, that is, similar respondents who took an interest in the full ten weeks of the post-dispatch board.

It adequately evacuates inspecting blunders in making examinations between the two arrangements of market shares. The prelaunch figures are obtained from probabilistic appraisals of purchasing conduct, a strategy that appeared to create exceptionally accurate total level deals insights (Yusof et al., 2015)

Chapter 5: Discussion & Conclusion


Scholarly research on client reliability has gotten noteworthy consideration. The lion’s share of this exploration conceptualized unwaveringness as a blend of rehash buys (number of visits) and the relative state of mind to the element (Wu et al., 2014). This exploration affirmed this somewhat by tolerating the speculations that the relative mentality of the store positively affects consumer loyalty and client reliability. The greatness of the state of mind impact is close to the same if the numbers for fulfillment and dependability were thought about (Yusof et al., 2015).

The impact of the number of visits on consumer loyalty is just critical in the event of Hoogvliet, while the rehash support significantly affects psychological steadfastness (4 out of 4), full of feeling reliability (2 out of 4), and activity dedication (3 out of 4). Along these lines, it is inferred that the state of mind to the store is a superior devotion pointer than the number of visits

The impact of trust on esteem and fulfillment was examined before looking at it (Saleem, Rahman, and Umar, 2015). The ebb and flow look likewise affirmed that trust, saw esteem, and fulfillment positively affect all the four kinds of faithfulness (subjective dependability, emotional reliability, conative dedication, and activity unwaveringness). The impact of those three drivers was the biggest for the stores of Hoogvliet (Hanks and Mattila, 2014).

This investigation affirms the beneficial outcome of consumer loyalty on client devotion. Every one of the four sorts of reliability is influenced by consumer loyalty in the market. Once more, the size of the impact was the biggest for Hoogvliet.

While Inoue and Kent (2014) affirmed the speculation that some statistic and behavioural factors have a noteworthy and directing impact on the fulfilment dedication relationship, this exploration didn’t discover this outcome. The directing effect of sexual orientation, age, the level of assortment chasing and the shopping association isn’t ascertained critical (Saleem, Rahman and Umar, 2015).

In this way, the last four speculations, which expressed that the statistic and behavioral markers affect the connection between consumer loyalty and client faithfulness, were rejected.

It was also discovered that 23 individuals in the approval test could evaluate their conduct, concerning the number of visits to the store and the offer of a wallet, very exactly. The impact of those two drivers (number of visits to the store and the offer of wallet) was discovered to be positive and huge on the mentality to the store, reasoning that the number of visits and the comparing offer of wallet positively affected the relative disposition to the market.

Restorative Actions to Meet Specific Loyalty Program Objectives

Expanding the number of loyalty programs to individuals • Partner with different brands and retailers to make it less demanding for individuals to collect focus.

• Provide free focuses or extra rebates for starting enrollment

• Recognise that open projects have more individuals than shut projects

• Increase the appeal of prizes.

• Make rewards simpler to get.

• Assure individuals that particular information on their obtaining conduct will be kept in the strictest of certainty and not be sold or shared (Saleem, Rahman, and Umar, 2015)

Diminishing part steady loss • Track part utilization and beneficial contact clients who have not, as of late, made a buy.

• Partner with different brands and retailers to make it simpler for individuals to aggregate focuses.

• Enable individuals to track focuses on the Web effortlessly.

• Combine free merchandise and ventures and rewards with different administrations (for example, extraordinary client bolster to get to, solicitations to trunk appear, individual customers, and so forth.) (Inoue and Kent, 2014).

Expanding buys by individuals • Implement a level framework to give extra focus to purchases over a given level.

• Develop a differential guide structure to remunerate overwhelming clients.

• Provide additional focuses for related-thing buys.

• Develop a differential point structure for closeouts, overloads, and end-of-season stock.

• Cross-offer products and enterprises with accomplices (Wu et al., 2014).

• Tailor prizes and correspondence to a part’s buy history.

• E-mail extraordinary offers to individuals.

Expanding part of Gross Benefit • Limit enlistment to individuals with a substantial and productive exchange history.

• Provide layered participation so substantial clients get more noteworthy advantages.

• Charge an ostensible expense to dishearten idle or little movement accounts.

• Enable individuals to effectively track action and focus, and, what’s more, grant shipment through the web.

• Restrict participation to an association’s productive clients (Shi, Prentice, and He, 2014).

Drop-out unrewarding individuals or individuals with low buy movement over a given time period.

Develop a differential point structure for closeouts, overloads, and end-of-season stock. This methodology can be utilized to lessen the markdown levels expected to clear this stock.


Expanding the arrival of the faithfulness program Venture • Consider outsourcing faithfulness part works, for example, satisfaction or honor determination where different firms can satisfy these capacities more effectively.

• Evaluate the dedication program on a ceaseless premise (Yusof et al., 2015)

• Sell total information to providers.

• Sell focuses on accomplices.

• Sell focuses on clients.

• Evaluate the elective rate of return on different projects that construct and look after client unwaveringness.

Expanding the nature of statistical surveying information • Outsource database development, support, and information mining to firms that spend significant time in these administrations.

• Use statistical surveying and data frameworks faculty in the dependability of program plans and usage.

Source; Barry Berman (2006), Developing a powerful client dependability program


In this examination, the fundamental drivers of client certainty and the connection between consumer loyalty and client devotion were broken down. The study was conducted in a local shopping mall, approaching the respondents directly.

By analyzing a few factors as conceivable determinants of consumer loyalty and client unwaveringness, the reason for this exploration is to give an unmistakable perspective of market reliability in a locale of the Netherlands. The results of this examination could give retail supervisors, particularly of supermarkets, a view of how fulfillment and reliability can be constructed.

Limitations and Further Research

A specific limitation of the present study offers lines for further investigations. The royalty programs were not studied according to any specific brands. The generic sample was studied regardless of their demographical backgrounds and brand consciousness. Specific brand loyalty programs can be studied in order to get specific marketing goals, studies, and struggles of a brand to gain market share in the market. The information was drawn through adopting convenient sampling technique, the target audience of brand loyalty programs may vary brand to brand and their strategic goals. To get the full picture of consumer loyalty and reliability, information from the population according to a number of factors constituting a relationship broke down in additional investigation.

The geographical pattern of the respondents can be another variable to study the relationship between consumers and loyalty and marketing loyalty programs of brands. Eco-social status of the respondents can also be studied as a variable to measure such relationship. Taking into consideration this variable, the investigation irregularity better can be avoided.

Loyalty attitude may be assessed in a relationship with the classification of the items and rewards offered. For example, the authenticity of innovative items may be affected by an indistinguishable driver from dissected in this examination. The scope of research can be expanded for such exploration of the relationship between loyalty marketing and customer’s long-term purchase attitude.

Likewise, the effect of arbitrators, which was not found in the flow investigate, could have any impact on different kinds of items.


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