Political infrastructure of any country plays an essential role in the development of the country. The states that have a stable political structure and the political institution they play an active role in regional as well as global politics. The stable political structure is a power of any state. Most of the third world countries face political problems like instability, military coup, and weak political structure. Pakistan is one the Asian nation that are the major actor of South Asia, but they face many challenges in their domestic politics such as military quo, political instability, power politics and many other issues. Due to that issues Pakistan spend his half-life under the military dictatorship. In Pakistan, there is parliamentary democratic political system according to the constitution, but due to amendment and the army coup, there were continuous changes occur in the political order of Pakistan. Due to substantial military interference in politics and other internal issues, there were many times transformation between parliamentary to presidential and presidential to parliamentary forms of govt.
Pakistan got independence from British rule in sub-continent and emerge as a sovereign nation on 14 August 1947 (Gilmartin and David, 2015). Pakistan has two wings West Pakistan and East Pakistan. The Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was the founder and first governor-general of Pakistan (Burki and Shahid, 2018). Liaqat Ali Khan was the first prime minister of Pakistan. In start during the Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah Pakistan is a secular state, and after the death of Quaid Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, there was a massive turn in the politics of Pakistan. Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin was selected as second governor general of Pakistan, and he belongs to the west wing of Pakistan. After the death of founder leader Muhammad Jinnah, there was rift start between two parts of Pakistan.
The political history of Pakistan:
During the life of Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, all powers serve by the governor. But after the death of Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah these power transferred two First Prime Minister (PM) Liaqat Ali Khan and Pakistan become a state where PM is more power all authority exercised by Prime minister.
In 1951 when the first prime minister of Pakistan Nawab Zada Liaqat Ali Khan was killed in Rawalpindi. After the death of a first prime minister of Pakistan at that time the governor general of Pakistan selected as a prime minister of Pakistan because at this time all powers served by the PM. When the governor-general of Pakistan become the Prime Minister of Pakistan that belongs to East Pakistan (Bengal) and Malik Ghulam Muhammad appointed as a third governor general of Pakistan that belongs to West Pakistan (Burki and Shahid, 2018). Again power structure was changed, and the governor was more potent as compared to Prime Minister that is the start of a rift between two wings of Pakistan.
In 1956 Pakistan give his first constitution. In which presidential form government at that time the governor general become the president of Pakistan and Sikandar Mirza was the first president of Pakistan who belongs to West Pakistan.
After the one and half years of the first constitution of Pakistan in 1958 first martial law was imposed by Military chief Ayub Khan and argued that due to failure and tussle between the politicians of West and East Pakistan it is the demand of time (Chaudhry, Ahmed, and Ummad, 2018). After the military quo the first constitution of Pakistan was dismissed and in 1962 the second constitution of Pakistan was adopted in which presidential form of government according to the law of Pakistan (Finer and Samuel, 2017). First time through indirect Electoral College Ayub Khan was elected as president of Pakistan.
In 1966 there was rebellion start against the Ayub regime, and finally, in 1969 Ayub left his office. A caretaker military government first time was ruled over (Cassidy, Richard, and Philip, 2015). In 1970 first time in the history of Pakistan general election conducted and Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) from West Pakistan and Awami Muslim League from East Pakistan emerge as majority parties (Karim and Arshad, 2016). No, any party compromise to sit in opposition. In the result, civil war began in the east Pakistan. Due to the involvement of other regional and global power and use of force in 1971 former East Pakistan become an independent state it is all because of the political rift between East and West wings of Pakistan (Cassidy, Richard, and Philip, 2015). Due to this political rift Pakistan loss his one part.
After the partition of the east wing of Pakistan now there is only Pakistan that is former West Pakistan. After the separation of East Pakistan Pakistan People’s Party was the majority party of West Pakistan and he makes government in Pakistan (Finer and Samuel, 2017). In 1973 the third constitution was passed by the assembly that implemented till now with numerous amendments.
In 1978 there was again military quo that toppled the Bhutto regime, and the military dictator was imposed. Military dictator, Zia ul Haq regime, was the worst time in the political history of Pakistan (Finer and Samuel, 2017). During the Zia ul Haq regime, there were political activities banned it’s not a dictatorship it was totalitarianism in this time there is no freedom of speech and freedom of opinion (Chaudhry, Ahmed, and Ummad, 2018). During Zia period there were no political activities in Pakistan. All political activities were banned.
In 1988 Zia planes were crash, and the worst military dictatorship ended. In 1988 the general election was held, and Pakistan Peoples Party emerge as a majority party and make government in Pakistan under the leadership of Benazir Bhutto, the daughter of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (Von and Karl, 2015). Benazir Bhutto was elected First women Prime Minister of Pakistan (Cassidy, Richard, and Philip, 2015). After the short span of two years of his government was dismissed by the president Ghulam Ishaq Khan and a democratic process were derailed.
In 1990 another general election was conducted in which Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz) emerge as a majority party in the parliament. The Quaid of Pakistan Muslim League (N) elected as a prime minister of Pakistan. This new government also face challenges, and in 1993 again the democratic culture was derailed.
In 1993 a general election was contested, and again Pakistan People’s Party emerges as a majority party in parliament (Von and Karl, 2015). Benazir Bhutto takes the oath of Prime Minister as the second time. In his second tenure, she only served for the term of three years and dismissed from her office by president Farooq leghari by using special powers.
In 1996 another general election was conducted in which party of Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz) emerged as a major party in the parliament, and he elected as Prime minister of Pakistan (Karim and Arshad, 2016). He served as a prime minister of Pakistan due to the Kargil conflict between two neighboring states India and Pakistan there were clashes arise between military and Nawaz government due to which in 1999 military chief general Perwaiz Musharraf toppled the Nawaz democratic regime and another army dictatorship start in Pakistan.
In 2002 military regime conducted the so-called general election and General Perwaiz Musharraf elected as president of Pakistan (Finer and Samuel, 2017). General Musharraf works in his office until he resigned. In 2007 general Musharraf left and in 2008 general election conducted. In this election Pakistan, People’s Party emerged as a majority party in the parliament and the Pakistan Muslin League (N) emerged as a second majority party in the parliament.
In the political history of Pakistan first time, a democratic government completes his tenure.
In 2013 another general election was held after the completion of first democratic government his tenure (Talbot and Ian, 2015). In election 2013 Pakistan Muslim League (N) emerge as a majority party in the parliament of Pakistan. Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif, the Quaid of Pakistan Muslim League (N), elected as a Prime Minister of Pakistan for the third time. He is the only Prime minister who elected three-time Prime minister of Pakistan. But He cannot complete his five year period (Talbot and Ian, 2015). Due corruption charges and many other legal issues the supreme court of Pakistan null and void and ban his participation in the practical politics. After the judgment of Supreme Court of Pakistan Shahid Khaqan Abbasi appointed as prime minister of Pakistan work in his office till now.
In the more than seventy year history of Pakistan, no prime minister complete his tenure. Half of the Pakistan political life ruled by the military dictators (Von and Karl, 2015).
Most of the third world countries face many political problems like the military coup. Pakistan is one of the third world countries that located in the south of Asia. Pakistan also faces many political difficulties from its birth. After the nine-year of his independence, he adopted his first constitution in 1956 (Hayes and Louis, 2016). Before the constitution nine years the newly emerging state-run state affair without any guideline and framework. Politicians and other groups use his powers according to his own will there is no constitutional guideline.
Pakistan has two wings, and there was a struggle for power between these two wings of power. Due to this rift between the politicians of two parts, there were many dramatic changes in the politics. If the presidents belong to West Pakistan than president vested all the powers and when president belongs to East Pakistan, and prime Minster belongs to West Pakistan than all powers are vested by the prime minister of Pakistan (Hayes and Louis, 2016). Due to this discrimination, the political environment is unsafe and insecure. In the result after the eleven years of independence, Pakistan faces first military dictatorship, and the weak democratic system was derailed by the first army chief General Ayub Khan.
Due to the continued interference of the military in the politics, they badly hit the political structure of Pakistan, and the political structure in Pakistan cannot get strength due to which they face many problems and politicians are incompetence to run the state affairs.
Causes of Pakistan weak political system:
There are many causes of Pakistan feeble political situation. India is one of the factors of the fragile political structure of Pakistan. Due to an existential threat from their first neighbor Indian Pakistan more focus on their military rather than other factors like political and aspects. In Pakistan military is the only organized department in Pakistan. And due to Indian threat Peoples have moral support with their military rather than the politicians (Von and Karl, 2015). In Pakistan military is more trusted as compared to politicians, peoples more support military in front of politicians, because Politian’s are failing to give basics needs and then they see towards the military. In Pakistan, the majority of peoples who always welcome military dictator due to which there continues military coup in Pakistan. Pakistan 34 year out of 71 years spend under the military rulers and this period is better for the majority of the people as compared to the political ruling.
Incapability of the politicians is another leading cause due to which military continues to interfere in the politics of the country. After the partition military developed itself, but the political structure was not improved (Von and Karl, 2015). There were many situations due to which in Pakistan democratic cannot get strength, due to which military get secure and safe way to interfere in the politics of Pakistan.
In Pakistan multi-party system there are almost 350 political parties in Pakistan, but there is no national political party that represents the whole. Due to the lack of the national political party, the political system cannot get influential political roots due to which they help anti-democratic agents to participate in the politics (Von and Karl, 2015). Most of the political parties or base on regional and ethnic issues, and they do not have with national politics and when any dictator comes in the politics that small political groups welcome military always.
In Pakistan, there is lack of national political leader due to which when any undemocratic means use to interfere in the politics of Pakistan, they cannot face any opposition. If there are influential national political personalities that influence whole Pakistan than it is difficult for undemocratic means to derailed the democratic process.
In Pakistan weak political structure. In Pakistan, after the independence, the political structure cannot strengthen due to continues military coup and military interference in the mainstream politics of Pakistan. If in Pakistan there is a strong political institution that will help to promote democratic culture in Pakistan and strengthen the democratic culture. Political institution plays an essential role in the political structure of the country (Diamond and Larry, 2015). In western countries, there is the strong political institution it will help and protect the democratic culture in those countries.
Political institution of the countries are the symbol of political stability, but unfortunately, in Pakistan, the political institutions cannot get stronger. If the political constitution is powerful and strengthens in Pakistan, it will help Pakistan to the stable political system.
A democratic society, the society play an essential role in the political system of any country (Diamond and Larry, 2015). Democratic political system society is a primary actor, and political system is based on the participation of the community in political culture. Unfortunately, after the independence till now there was less participation of the society in the political system of Pakistan. In the Democratic political practice, the nation is the primary and vital actor on which this political system is based.
Incompetence politicians. Pakistani politicians are incompetence and that have not the ability to run the state affairs. If the politicians have the competence and they fulfill the demand of the people and cannot create the gap that full fill by other actors. Politicians have not competence in state affairs. And satisfy the needs and demand it’s an obstacle to undemocratic culture to interfere in the political system.
Dharna politics and other pressure groups also negatively affect the process of democratic culture in Pakistan. In many times the opposition parties trying to derail the process when they are in opposition (Von and Karl, 2015). The political process hindered by the anti-democratic powers because the politician has not capability and other political groups and parties that are in opposition always welcome anti-democratic means.
The role of bureaucracy you cannot marginalize or sideline. In Pakistan, bureaucracy is more powerful either military or civilian bureaucracy. If any political government that cannot serve the interest of bureaucracy with the help of other pressure group and political parties they derailed the process of democracy.
The weak party system is one of the major causes of the weak political system. Political parties are one of the major forces that counter the military intervention into the political system of any country. But unfortunately, in Pakistan, there is a weak political party system, and they have not mass political basses that resist anti-democratic or military to inter-fare in the political system (Von and Karl, 2015). Democracy is the process that bases on the major political parties if there is a big political party it is difficult for the military to inter-fair in the political system of the country.
Political parties play an essential role to strengthen the democracy or democratic culture. Political parties institutionalized the diversity of the opinion it is the beauty of democracy. Political parties under the democratic culture serve as a bridge between the government and peoples. Political parties need to democratize their internal structure and strengthen in masses that affect positively in the political system of the country (Von and Karl, 2015). In Pakistan the party system is weak they create space that fills by the other non-democratic fill this space and emerges as a power in the political arena.
The nondemocratic social structure is another cause due to which Pakistan political system is weak. Political institutions do not emerge in a vacuum there is a close relationship between the political institutions expresses the voices of societies. Pakistani society is feudalistic society and feudalism and democracy are two opposing norms (Von and Karl, 2015). Democracy cannot prevail in the feudalistic society. Feudalism support and promote the one-man show while on the other hand democracy base on mass participation in the political system and democracy everyone is equal. In democracy quantitative approach is adopted. Pakistani politics was controlled by these feudal and due to which democracy cannot prevail in Pakistan.
In compare to Pakistan India emerge as power because India abolished the feudalism. In Pakistan, these feudalistic legacies prevail because Muslim league heavily depends on feudal. On the other hand, Congress represents the lower class, and Congress is anti-feudalism. Feudal structure society of Pakistan is a significant obstacle in democratic culture of Pakistan (Von and Karl, 2015). Due to the feudalistic mindset, Pakistani politics to promote elitism in the politics that is harmful to the democracy and in this structure democracy cannot prevail.
Free and fair electoral system is one of the major components of the democracy. Democracy is a form of government in which everyone has a share. Without the mass participation of the people, this system cannot prevail (Shah et al., 2017). In Pakistan average turn out is 40 percent that is very low due to that anti-democratic always derailed the process of democracy.
Pakistani electoral system is not free and fair. All elections that are contested the allegation of raging by the other major political parties. The Free and Fair election is one of the essential elements of democracy, and they play an indispensable role in the development of political culture in the country.
Solution how we solve these problems
The problem of weak democratic culture is solvable in Pakistan some essential steps need to take.
Feudalism is one of the major threat to democracy in Pakistan. Feudalism should abolish immediately and conduct the general election according to the wish of the peoples of Pakistan (Handel and Michael, 2016). It is needed that create a participatory culture in politics and transform political culture.
In the past, the role of the judiciary was questioned marked it is needed that court should be free and independent and every one equal before the law, and stops all illegal activities.
Parliament is the symbol of the stable political system should be a sovereign and make ground oriented legislation. Parliament makes a law that is for the betterment of Pakistan and promotes democratic culture in Pakistan.
Insured the supremacy of the constitution of Pakistan. Free and fair election ensured by the free and independent election commission and to prevent rigging in the election (Rose, Susan, and Bonnie, 2016). Highlight the importance of democracy and increase the mass participation of people in the electoral system that helps to strengthen the democratic culture in Pakistan.
Political parties play an influential role in the democratic political culture. To prevail the democracy in Pakistan political parties develop a people-friendly ideology and in hence their network in the mass participation of the peoples (Shah et al., 2017). Political parties need to generate strong coordination between the peoples (Rose, Susan, and Bonnie, 2016). Political parties need to increase their influence and counter the supremacy of nonpolitical institutions through the massive public support. It is required that political parties promote democratic culture in Pakistan when they are in government or opposition. If there is a strong democratic culture in Pakistan, it is suitable for the political parties that are the direct participant and get benefits from them.
Strong political institutions are the primary requirement for the development of the democracy in any country (Handel and Michael, 2016). Unfortunately from the birth of Pakistan political institutions are not strengthen, due to which the democratic were derailed by the dictator if there were strong political institutions it helps to protect democratic culture in Pakistan.
Role of civil society in strengthening the democracy
Civil society plays an important role to enhance the democracy in any country. Civil society is an influential group in any country. Civil society has strong roots that help to strengthen the democratic culture in the country. It is needed that highlights the importance of democracy in the society. The societal structure plays an essential role in enhancing the democracy in Pakistan. In Pakistan majority of people like the military dictatorship as compare to democracy if society democratized, it will help democracy to prevail in Pakistan. Because in a democratic form of government society is a primary actor that plays a most crucial role.
Political structure plays an essential role in the development of any country. If there is a strong political system in the country, the significant country role. The political structure is one of the elements of the power. Unfortunately, Pakistan has a weak political system; this political system was derailed by military dictators time by time due to which they cannot strengthen and not institutionalize. Many actors play an essential role in this regard. Military and political parties are the primary responsibility for this.
From the birth of Pakistan, there were clashes between the political parties and clashes between the military and politicians due to which the political system does not strengthen in Pakistan. After the nine years of independGeneral Ayub Khan imposed the first martial law. Time by time these process will be derailed due to the clashes between politicians and army. Due to continuing military interference in Pakistan, the Democratic culture was not strengthened.
Politicians were failed to fulfill the demands of peoples, and they cannot get popularity in the peoples and whenever military coup was imposed a majority of people welcome military. If politician adopts peoples friendly policies and in hence their area of influence in the masses of people, it will help to prevail democratic culture in Pakistan and an obstacle for the military to interfere in politics.
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