Academic Master


the structure and functions of the human Digestion System

The digestion system is a group of organs that work together to ensure that food is converted to energy and nutrients needed by the body (Lincoln, 2011). According to Lincoln (2011), food digestion starts in the mouth, where starch is digested, and ends in the small intestine.

The food passes through an alimentary canal made of the pharynx, cavity, esophagus, small intestine, stomach, and large intestine until it reaches the excretion stage. Food gets mixed up with enzymes and acid, which facilitates digestion through the process over the digestive tract. Therefore, this paper discusses why it is necessary to have both a circular and longitudinal muscle layer in the muscular layer, the causes of stomach growling, and how digestion is affected in patients whose gallbladder are removed.

Research has indicated that food cannot move independently without necessary support. Therefore, the purpose of the longitudinal and circular layers of the digestion system is to facilitate the movement of food throughout the digestion system. As Soonawalla (2014) states, the longitudinal layer is the layer of nerves that causes peristalsis. The peristalsis allows the food to mix with enzymes and other acids required for digestion. It is, therefore, evidence that without a longitudinal layer food cannot mix with enzymes and therefore, digestion cannot occur. The circular layer also facilitates the movement of food throughout the gastrointestinal tract. It allows the food to mix as it moves through the tract. The longitudinal layer brings in the muscular and therefore, increases the muscle mass and also makes the contraction of the circular muscle to be efficient, therefore, it makes digestion to be efficient and faster  (Morgan & Claypool Life Sciences., 2011).

However, the stomach growling usually occurs during the process of digestion. It takes place along the digestion track and mostly in the intestine.  According to Lincoln (2011), the stomach’s growling occurs through the movement of juice, water, food, and digestive juice through the intestine. Growling is a sound like bubbling which is normally produced by the stomach and it occurs as a result of the movement of food. Research has also indicated that constant growling can mean hunger and therefore, it is a sign that the stomach needs food.

A growling sound can sometimes indicate a serious condition that might need medical attention (Lincoln, 2011). It is usually known as stomach rumbling and requires serious medication. Nevertheless, stomach growling usually occurs when food is moved through the gastrointestinal tract, which is normal for most people.

The gallbladder is an essential organ and plays a vital role in digestion. The gallbladder is located next to the liver and produces the bile needed for the digestion of fatty food which occurs in the duodenum of the small intestine. Therefore, without a gallbladder, fatty food would not be able to be digested (Soonawalla, 2014). A person whose gallbladder is removed cannot eat fatty food since the system cannot digest fatty food. However, the digestion system will be slower and weaker since the bile facilitating digestion will be removed. Fatal digestion will be impaired, which can facilitate the development of other health complications such as diabetes and high blood pressure in the body.

In conclusion, the digestion system is vital for the body because it ensures that food is properly processed and nutrients are absorbed by the body. The process starts in the mouth, where starch is converted to glucose, and ends in the large intestine. Therefore, every organ that facilitates digestion plays an important role in allowing digestion to take place.


Lincoln, N. (2011). The Digestive System: Human Anatomy. Journal of Health Science ,

34 (6), 2-18.

Morgan & Claypool Life Sciences. (2011). Peristalsis in the Circular and Longitudinal Muscles

of the Esophagus. Motor Function of the Pharynx, Esophagus, and its Sphincters. , 2-10.

Soonawalla, Z. (2014). Surgical Removal of Gallbladder.

guide/leaflets/files/cholecystectomy.pdf , 2-15.



Calculate Your Order

Standard price





Pop-up Message