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The Scientific Method and Innovations: Part 1

Directions: Use this template to complete the scientific method to support your assignment. Use Figure 1.4 in Chapter 1 of your course text to complete this assignment.

Section 1: The Scientific Method

  1. Explain the scientific method. Identify the origins of this method and provide examples of its application to solve real-world problems. Also, describe why this method ensures a sound analysis of data.
The scientific method is a process of inquiry and experimentation. It is used to investigate phenomena, develop explanations for them, and test these explanations (Tang et al., 2009). Scientific methods can be applied to various subjects, including physics, biology, chemistry, and social science. It is used to solve problems in science, engineering, and medicine. This is done by first observing the problem and then designing an experiment to test it. The experiment will either confirm or disprove the hypothesis created during observation. If the hypothesis is proven true, the scientists can use that information to solve other life problems. If not, the scientist can revise the hypotheses until they are proven true. One example of applying the scientific method is when one look into the history of our planet and its climate. The scientist can learn from the past events when predicting future events by looking at what has happened in the past. For example, one could look at how much snow falls during different seasons to predict what will happen this winter. The scientific method ensures that the results of our analysis are sound because it uses a series of steps that have been proven effective in producing reliable results. The first step is to define what the scientist are looking for clearly. This step ensures that the scientists are focused on the right things and helps avoid making any mistakes during analysis. After defining what the scientist are looking for, they go through the collected data independently and compare it with other data sets. This step allows to identify patterns in the data, which can help make more informed conclusions about it. Their final step is reporting on findings and then write up an article explaining what they have learned so far and how it relates to current events or other topics within the field.

Define the process or steps in the scientific method. Describe the typical activities that would happen in that step or probes. Describe the objective of each step and the typical activities or tasks for that step.

The scientific method is a framework for understanding and explaining the natural world. The scientific method can investigate, predict, and explain anything from the formation of new stars to the behavior of protons.

The scientific method involves four main steps:

Observation: This step involves gathering data from observations made by scientists or other researchers.

Hypothesis generation: This step involves identifying possible explanations for the data gathered in Step 1.

Experimentation: This step involves designing an experiment to test scientists’ hypothesis. The scientist must control every variable in this experiment to ensure no bias or confounding variables could affect results.

Analysis: In this final step, the scientist analyzes the data collected during Steps 2 and 3 to determine whether the hypothesis was correct or not.

Section 2: Data Analysis

Use the information below to complete the questions of this section.

Data from 5,000 patients was recorded over a 6-month period to determine the correlation between lifestyle choices (that is, smoking, diet, exercise, environmental exposures, genetics) and cancer risk. In this particular study, individuals with “multiple factors” were double counted and leads to the total being greater than 5,000. Use the information and data in Table 1 below to help you generate your hypothesis, outcomes, and analysis.

Table 1: Lifestyle Choice and Correlation to Cancer

Lifestyle Choice Total Responses (Yes) Cancer


Smoking and Tobacco 2,400 1,020
Good Diet and Physical Activity 1,250 80
Sun and Other Types of Radiation 900 180
Genetics 450 250
Multiple Negative Factors 1,300 1,000

Apply the scientific method to determine if lifestyle choices can address the issues of the study. Analyze the data to see the relationship between lifestyle choices and the risk of cancer. Evaluate the data to determine if lifestyle choices have any bearing on the risk of cancer, and how. Provide opinions and supporting examples.

According to this data, 77% of patients who report having several adverse variables also have cancer. After doing some reading, I came across reports of studies on the possible ties between certain lifestyle factors and the development of cancer. Can smoking and other risk factors bring on cancer? Those who make changes to their diet and exercise habits, as it is proposed, will reduce their risk of developing cancer. It can be noticed that the hypothesis is supported and likely correct since 43% of respondents who smoked or used cigarettes had cancer, 20% had exposure to the sun or other forms of radiation, 56% had some hereditary cancer, and 77% documented many unfavorable variables and cancer. At least 14 different kinds of cancer may be attributed to tobacco usage. At least 50 carcinogens in tobacco have been related to lung cancer. As a result of alcohol use, the liver may become inflamed. Cancers of the intestines, colon, prostate, bladder, breast, and stomach/esophagus are all exacerbated by a diet heavy in red meat. Almost 90% of people who get lung cancer are heavy smokers, and the consequences of tobacco and alcohol usage may be magnified. Those who eat a diet rich in vegetables and whole grains have a lower chance of developing cancer. Consequently, in light of the data analyzed from these 5,000 patients, I believe that a healthy lifestyle reduces cancer incidence.

Articulate the conclusions reached in the study. Make the connection between the data and how this leads to the conclusion. Include specific data to support your thoughts about the conclusion. Define a hypothesis that is suggested by the data collected in the primary care center. What is your prediction based on the data collected? Explain how you would use the scientific method to test your hypothesis or prediction? Describe the results. Do you accept or reject your hypothesis? Explain your answer in detail.

Cigarette smoking, alcohol use, diabetes, infection, sunshine, stress, dietary carcinogens, and environmental pollution are the leading causes of cancer (Inoue-Choi et al., 2017). According to the data from the 5,000 patients, I predict that those who make good lifestyle choices have a lower probability of developing cancer. While smoking, poor diet, lack of exercise, exposure to the sun without proper protection (including sunscreen), lack of shade, and excessive alcohol consumption are all linked to an increased risk of cancer, it is essential to note that the risk of some cancers is primarily determined by genetics and cannot be altered. The evidence mentioned earlier supports my argument that there is a link between one’s lifestyle and cancer development.

Section 3: Limitations

Describe the possible limitations of interpreting your conclusions. Identify the possible limitations of the collected data—what kinds of things might be happening that the data isn’t showing? Explain how the limitations of the data might cause a misinterpretation of the data.

As a potential limitation, one may not be able to definitively say which forms of cancer are linked to confident lifestyle choices. Age, color, gender, ethnicity, religion, and handicap were not included in the data collection and may have added another layer of complexity and led to incorrect conclusions. Certain types of cancer have distinct age, racial/ethnic/gender predispositions. It is also unclear from the statistics how many persons have a predisposition to cancer due to a family history of the disease and a lack of attention to their health. If one could disentangle the effects of bad lifestyle choices from those of heredity, the statistics could be lower and demonstrate less of a link between the two.


Inoue-Choi, M., Hartge, P., Liao, L. M., Caporaso, N., & Freedman, N. D. (2017). Association between long-term low-intensity cigarette smoking and incidence of smoking-related cancer in the national institutes of health-AARP cohort. International Journal of Cancer, 142(2), 271–280.

Tang, X., Coffey, J. E., Elby, A., & Levin, D. M. (2009). The scientific method and scientific inquiry: Tensions in teaching and learning. Science Education, 94(1), 29–47.



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