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The Reliable Utilization of Nuclear Energy in United States and France

The minimum amount of energy required for disassembling the nucleus of an atom into its components is known as nuclear energy. The elements of an atom are known as nucleons, consisting of neutrons and protons (“Nuclear – Energy Explained, Your Guide to Understanding Energy – Energy Information Administration”). Energy is required to move the nucleons from one another since the nucleons are attracted by the nuclear force; hence, the binding energy is always kept positive. The sum of the mass of the individual masses of protons and neutrons is more than that of the mass of an atomic nucleus (Comby, Bruno). This is according to Einstein’s equation. E=mc^2. The missing mass in this equation represents mass detection. This mass defect is the energy released when the nucleus is formed.

Nuclear energy originates from two main sources: fusion and fission reactions. A fission reaction can produce a lot of energy nearly 10 million of energy, enormous energy can be prepared with fusion reaction as well, but it has not been done since the reaction cannot be controlled instantly. The term ‘nuclear energy’ is becoming one of the notable highlights at present. Although the term nuclear energy comes with some bitter memories of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the destruction caused in these places, it has some attractive features as well. The utilization of nuclear energy can be made clean, safe, and reliable. Nuclear energy can be used at a competitive cost with no greenhouse emissions and its compactness (Comby, Bruno). This essay will address the reliable utilization of nuclear energy in the countries of the United States and France, which supports the countries economically, environmentally, and technologically.

Using fossil fuels for the generation of electricity causes issues like the emission of greenhouse gases, which is adverse to the health of human beings and all living beings as a whole. In this case, nuclear energy is one of the reliable sources of the generation of electricity. Nuclear energy is completely safe for the environment. However, the generation of electricity needs to be managed safely. Some of the pros of nuclear energy are mentioned as follows:


Nuclear reactors can produce power 90 percent of the time, making this a source of energy-based electricity. The periods of refueling can be extended using the substantial method. This shows that the down timing of refueling has lessened significantly. With the passage of time, these advancements have been seen in the United States. This country has developed reactors with the latest advancements that have existed for years. Reports have shown that some reactors in the United States can survive for more than 40 years (Kato, Yukitaka). Out of these reactors, many are reaching the verge of perfection, making their ages perfect. Projections have listed that these reactors can still operate for over twenty years. Hence, the reactors developed in the United States are a good energy source for conserving energy in the future. With the consumption of energy, the country’s economic conditions are getting better as well.

Figure 1: Countries depending on nuclear power for electricity

Cited: (Kato, Yukitaka)

No greenhouse gas emissions:

According to a recent survey, energy production depends heavily on coal. The production of electricity from coal emits greenhouse gases, which are dangerous for human survival since many issues are caused by human respiratory systems.

Figure 2: World Electricity Production by Source 2017

Cited: (Rayson, Linda)

In this case, using nuclear reactors to generate electricity is the best possible option. Nuclear reactor emits zero greenhouse gases. The nuclear reactors are developed with the help of uranium. In the process of mining and enrichment of uranium, some of the greenhouse gasses are emitted, but this amount is less than that of the gases emitted in the generation of electricity with the help of coal. Hence, nuclear reactors are a good source of electricity generation compared to fossil fuels. For a long period, France has been working on this concept to save their nation from different diseases (Clarke, Emilia).

Competitive cost:

Nuclear energy is considered one of the sustainable energy sources in the 21st century. One of the reasons behind this statement is the competitive cost associated with nuclear energy. The cost of nuclear power is stable to some extent and competitive from many perspectives. The power made from the different kinds of fossil fuels is highly dependent on the market’s current situation. When the oil price is good, the stability in the market price can be easily observed. However, when the market is volatile, there is an evident shoot-up in the price of oil (Kessler, G.). This shows that there is instability in the prices of the power production using fossil fuels and oil, whereas nuclear energy gives us stability and a cost that can make the economy of the country well-stable. The United States has been utilizing competitive costs to make the country’s economy even stronger than before.


Many researchers have stated that nuclear energy is a compact form of energy. The space occupied by the nuclear power station is compact. It mostly covers an area of a football stadium and some of the surroundings for the production of energy, where the production of energy from other sources needs a vast amount of space to carry on the production process (Shellenberger, Michael). Wind turbines, solar cells, and growing biomass all need a huge area of land. Such compact nuclear energy plants are also seen in the United States and France. Recently, the construction of a nuclear power stadium in France is a clear description of this compactness.

Figure 3: one of the stills from the nuclear power station in France

Cited: (Shellenberger, Michael)

More proficient than the use of fossil fuels:

It has been found that the use of nuclear energy is more proficient than that of fossil fuels due to so many competitive advantages (Morbee, J. et al.). The recent nuclear innovations and the other already existing ones are making this form of energy more feasible than others. The energy density of the reactors made by the nuclear reaction is more than that of the fossil fuels. Moreover, once developed, these reactors are available for a long time. The amount of fuel required by the nuclear power plant is comparatively less than what is required by other power plant,s as the energy released by nuclear fission is approximately ten million times greater than the amount of energy released by fossil fuelatoms m(Morbee, J. et al.). This is the reason for investment in this form of energy. Every nation has decided to utilize nuclear energy as a major source of energy and for the production of electricity.

Safe nuclear power plants in present time:

The modern-day nuclear power plants are considered safe and better for producing energy from different perspectives. All those countries developing nuclear power plants have much to learn from past experiences or incidents like those in Japan. Countries like the United States and France are making nuclear power plants in such a way that these accidents from the past are avoided. All precautionary measures are taken along with the remedies for future problems that can be encountered in any case. One of the precautions taken is independence from external electricity (Shellenberger, Michael). The current nuclear power plants do not depend on external electricity for any supply. No external water supply is used for cooling in modern nuclear power plants. Instead of an external water supply, water is fed from gravity, the convection heat exchangers, and also from the pressurized water tanks that have certain gases in them. Such systems are referred to as passive safety systems.

Underground installation of reactors in modern power plants:

The passive safety systems have an underground installation of reactors. This installation offers more insulation than other power plants. The reactors are now safe from unauthorized access, which directly prevents the wrong use of them. Besides this, all external hazards are handled in this. The United States is currently implementing this system in all of the country’s power plants.

Substantially low cost of operations:

Setting up nuclear power plants is costly since it involves a lot of new technology, but once the power plant gets installed, the country is ready to enjoy the perks of good economic conditions. The electricity produced after the power plant is set up is relatively cheap. The raw material used in nuclear energy production is uranium (Nash, R. S., and P. B. Woollam). This is one of the cheap radioactive materials used in producing nuclear energy. This shows that the start of production is not expensive.

The raw material used in the production of nuclear energy:

Once the power plant is set up, maintenance charges are extremely low since the plant is set up with every kind of underground installation, which makes the technology safe and reliable for further use. Even if market shifts occur and the cost of uranium shoots up, the effect on the cost of power will hardly be felt. Therefore, the effect of the market on the production of nuclear energy is less since the raw material used can be more expensive than that of the fossil fuels used in energy production (Nash, R. S., and P. B. Woollam). The power plants in the United States use cheap uranium to produce electricity, which has resulted in cost-effective electricity production.

Power and efficient form of energy:

The utilization of nuclear energy for energy production is becoming more powerful every day. This energy source is more efficient than the alternative forms of energy available (Shellenberger, Michael). Its readily available energy has changed the economic conditions of many underdeveloped countries and strengthened the economies of developed countries.

Readily available technology:

This technology is readily available; it does not have to be developed first (Shellenberger, Michael). The development of other means of technology has made nuclear power a viable source compared to other forms of energy. Its reliability and readily available technology are making many countries like the United States and France invite this technology a great deal. At present, a small portion of the world’s electricity comes from nuclear power plants.


To sum up, one of the major highlights of the present time is observed in the form of nuclear energy, Nuclear energy obtained by the splitting up of the components of an atom has gained much popularity in the recent times. Although there are many bad incidents associated with this technology, it is changing technology, economic conditions, and health conditions in many countries, such as the United States and France. Many compact power plants are observed in both of the countries. These countries are making a huge investment in this form of energy because of the electricity coming from this energy. This form of energy has reduced the population’s issue of not emitting greenhouse gases. Its competitive cost helps to make cheap electricity. The time is not far when electricity will be accessible to every person at cheap rates. External hazards associated with nuclear power plants are overcome in modern power plants where the reactors are installed underground. Nuclear reactors can produce power 90 percent of the time, making this a source of energy-based electricity. This is the reason nuclear energy is turning into a reliable source of energy utilization. However, this form of energy is still not renewable.

Work Cited


Kato, Yukitaka. “Contribution Of Nuclear Energy On New Energy Systems Post Fukushima.” Progress In Nuclear Energy, vol 82, 2015, pp. 53-57. Elsevier BV, doi:10.1016/j.pnucene.2014.07.018.

 Rayson, Linda. “Nuclear Power Today | Nuclear Energy – World Nuclear Association.” World-Nuclear.Org, 2018,

Clarke, Emilia. “Advantages Of Nuclear Energy – Conserve Energy Future.” Conserve Energy Future, 2018,

 Kessler, G. “Requirements For Nuclear Energy In The 21St Century Nuclear Energy As A Sustainable Energy Source.” Progress In Nuclear Energy, vol 40, no. 3-4, 2002, pp. 309-325. Elsevier BV, doi:10.1016/s0149-1970(02)00024-0.

Shellenberger, Michael. “Nuclear Power: Unexpected Health Benefits.” Nature Energy, vol 2, no. 4, 2017, p. 17058. Springer Nature, doi:10.1038/nenergy.2017.58.

“Nuclear – Energy Explained, Your Guide To Understanding Energy – Energy Information Administration.” Eia.Gov, 2017,

Nash, R. S., and P. B. Woollam. “The Potential Benefits And Drawbacks Of Deferring The Decommissioning And Dismantling Of Nuclear Facilities.” Nuclear Energy, vol 41, no. 5, 2002, pp. 325-331. Thomas Telford Ltd., doi:10.1680/nuen.41.5.325.38997.

Morbee, J. et al. “Taxation Of Nuclear Rents: Benefits, Drawbacks, And Alternatives.” Energy Economics, vol 51, 2015, pp. 622-632. Elsevier BV, doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2015.06.007.



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