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The pros and cons of Renewable Energy sources

Renewable energy involves energy harvested from renewable sources; most are natural sources, and these sources continuously renew or replenish. These energy sources are considered to be theoretically the example of this sources include inexhaustible. These sources of energy are found in the air, deep underground, in the ocean or in sunlight. These sources form part of the universe. As a result, they are continually renewed by various natural means. These sources cannot be exhausted. The process of production does not lead to environmental pollution. Its sources require less amount of money to generate (Turner). The sources are easily found on the planet. These sources are both economically and environmentally friendly. As a result, these sources of energy can provide energy to various sectors, such as businesses, and homesteads as well as a homestead. Therefore, there are various types or classifications of energy, which are renewable generation stations such as solar, geothermal, hydroelectricity from waterwheels, thermal energy from ocean bioenergy, and wind among other sources. They work and deliver power in different ways. However, these sources have cons as well as pros when used as the sources of generating power for people or organizations that want power.

Solar Energy

Sun produces sunlight, which is a source of renewable energy, and direct use involves sun energy capturing (Turner). Light energy as well as solar energy conversion to heat: hot water, illumination, cooling system (paradoxically) as well as electricity for industries and business uses various solar energy technologies.

Sunlight is converted to different forms of energy using various technologies. Sunlight is converted into electricity using a photovoltaic system (PV). This system is made of numerous solar cells. The cell contains silicon, such as semiconductors. The photovoltaic system contains a negative layer and a positive layer, which together form electric fields, as it is in the battery. This photovoltaic system produces direct current whereby the electrons move around the circuit in one direction. For instance, the electrons flow similarly to the batter, where they move from the negative side to the positive side after passing through a lamp. The solar system of hot water may be used in a heating building using flat-plate collectors of solar (Turner). Mirrored dishes concentrate heat from the sun when forced into the water in the boil, producing electricity. Industries, as well as commercial centers, use sunlight in heating, cooling as well as ventilating on a large scale. Therefore, sunlight is a potential renewable source; however, it has cons as well as pros.


Sunlight-generated energy is unlimited as well as does not pollute the environment.


First, electricity production cannot take place in the absence of sunlight, like at night hours. Second, a huge geographical area is needed for the panels to produce enough energy. Lastly, glare can result from the panels (Jacobsson and Johnson).

Wind Capturing Station

Wind results from atmospheric cooling as well as heat. Wind turbines capture the flow of wind and convert it into electricity. The turbines, like aircraft blades that propel in the wind, power the electric generator (Jacobsson and Johnson). These wind turbines include the vertical as well as the horizontal turbines. In this case, wind kinetic energy is changed into mechanical energy. This mechanical energy is used in various takes. Additionally, the electrical energy production is possible from the mechanical energy (Turner).


Wind energy offers renewable power. The energy allows production. Also, wind energy does not contribute much to environmental pollution. No wastes are produced from this production process (Jacobsson and Johnson).


First, wind energy generation technologies require a lot of money. High initial capital is required in the production of wind energy. Second, wind power stations produce noise that pollutes the environment. The rotary plates produce noise that pollutes the environment. Lastly, wind storage is impossible; as a result, wind production is challenging since it does not guarantee the production of power when needed.

Geothermal Energy Station

Geothermal energy is produced from the earth’s heat. The heat comes from hot water reservoirs, the earth’s surface or heated rocks. A heat pump system is used in the production of heat and electricity (Jacobsson and Johnson). Dry steam is drawn from the ground steam sources. At times flash steam is used or a binary cycle to produce the energy.


First, the production of geothermal energy does not result in significant pollution effects. Second, the sources of geothermal energy are naturally renewable or replenished. Using all of the sources is impossible. Third, they have massive potential. Fourth, geothermal energy can meet the energy demand, unlike other renewable reservoirs. Fifth, the harvesting process needs no fuels, and small land footprints are required. Lastly, technology has evolved, making the production of this energy easy (Jacobsson and Johnson).


First, geothermal production has some environmental issues. The greenhouse gases escape to the environment causing pollution. Gasses such as silica and sulfur dioxide are emitted into the environment among other heavy metals such as boron, arsenic as well as mercury. Secondly, surface instability can result. The construction of geothermal energy stations can result in earthquakes, among other land instability effects (Jacobsson and Johnson).

Hydropower Stations

The hydropower uses the river flow kinetic energy in the production of power. This kinetic energy is captured in a different method and then changed into electrical energy. The hydropower facilities include pumped storage, diverse as well as impoundment. In impoundment, water is stored in a dam reservoir. From this dam, water is let to flow from the dam through the turbines rotating them. These rotating turbines activate the electricity-producing generator. In the diversion facility, water is channelled through a penstock or canal.  Dams are not needed. Therefore, the channelled water hit the turbines causing them to rotate, activating the electricity-producing generator. In pumped storage, energy is stored from other renewable sources as a battery. It pumps water from lower to upper reservoirs in the absence of energy (Jacobsson and Johnson).


First, this source is renewable and allows utilization of other renewable sources, such as in a pumped storage facility. Secondly, it is a reliable as well as a stable power source. Lastly, hydroelectricity aids in cleaning the air, provides cheap energy as well as aid in fighting various climate changes (Jacobsson and Johnson).


It is restricted to the area having water and dams can cause environmental concerns.

Ocean Energy Station

In this case, the sun’s heat energy can produce thermal energy, or the wave’s motion produces mechanical energy. In mechanical energy production, a dam is made, which causes the thermal energy to pass through turbines, producing electrical energy. Waves are conserved using float systems, oscillating water systems, and channel systems. Sun energy is used in the production of thermal energy as well (Pelc and Fujita).


It is a renewable source and is a reliable and stable energy source (Pelc and Fujita).


It is restricted to the area having water and dams can cause environmental concerns (Pelc and Fujita).

Bio Energy

The bioenergy is produced from the biomass. Animal and plant wastes are referred to as biomass. The technologies used in the production include biopower, bioproducts, and biofuel. In biopower, direct burning of biomass or conversion into oil or gaseous fuel generates energy. In bioproduction, biomass is converted to products that can generate energy. Lastly, biofuel biomass is converted into a liquid for easy transportation (Pelc and Fujita).


It is a renewable, widely available, as well as aid in waste reduction.


Bioenergy causes pollution from the burning remains, and it fosters deforestation requires space, production and money.

The renewable plant provides energy that can be renewed, unlike the non-renewable sources such as coal and oil. Fossil fuel gets exhausted after some time of use. Both renewable and non-renewable sources contribute to pollution; however, the extent of non-renewable pollution level is low  (Pelc and Fujita).

In conclusion, renewable energy stations like solar, water, ocean, wind and biomass produce renewable energy (Jacobsson and Johnson). The energy results from the natural earth materials that are inexhaustible. These renewable energies have pros as well as cons.

Work Cited

Jacobsson, Staffan, and Anna Johnson. “The Diffusion of Renewable Energy Technology: An Analytical Framework and Key Issues for Research.” Energy Policy, vol. 28, no. 9, 2000, pp. 625–640.

Pelc, Robin, and Rod M. Fujita. “Renewable Energy from the Ocean.” Marine Policy, vol. 26, no. 6, 2002, pp. 471–479.

Turner, John A. “A Realizable Renewable Energy Future.” Science, vol. 285, no. 5428, 1999, pp. 687–689.



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