Academic Master

Health Care

The effectiveness of interventions aimed at increasing hand washing in healthcare workers—a systematic review by Naikoba S, and Hayward A


The qualitative paper that I have selected as a base for my research paper is “The effectiveness of interventions aimed at increasing handwashing in healthcare workers—a systematic review by Naikoba S, and Hayward A.” I have selected this paper because the author is very capable and they have a long experience with the literature of handwashing in Hospitals to avoid the Hospital Acquired Infections. This paper will serve as a base for my research paper that is “How the use of handwashing with soap and handwashing with alcohol-based sanitizers by the nurses in patient care reduce the Hospital Acquired Infections.” The paper that I have selected is focused on handwashing. The Hospital Acquired Infections are a serious issue, and the authors consider handwashing a key to preventing Hospital Acquired Infections.

Study Background

There were no significant efforts in the past to prevent Hospital Acquired Infections. The authors conducted this study to provide a key to preventing HAI by encouraging the handwashing of healthcare workers. The main purpose of this study is to show the effectiveness of handwashing by healthcare workers during patient care and to prevent HAI. Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI) is a health problem due to its fatal consequences, high frequency, and high price of treatment. Health personnel is exposed to contact with multiple pathogens, a situation that makes them a transmitter and potential carriers of these pathogens to other patients (Naikoba & Hayward, 2001). So in the care of patients it is important to have clean hands. The research questions of this paper are: What are the ways to promote handwashing among healthcare workers to control the hospital Acquired Infections, What is the effectiveness of interventions to increase handwashing among healthcare workers, how the handwashing be encouraged among healthcare workers and what facilities can help in promoting handwashing. These are the questions that lead to me selecting this paper as a base for my study.

Literature Analysis

The study has conducted a literature review using numerous verified sources: Computerized databases of medical literature (CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, & Cochrane Library), and Screening of reference lists of studies and official documents. The study was conducted by obtaining valuable data from numerous sources to show the effectiveness of interventions in the handwashing of healthcare workers. The author also made efforts for identifying unpublished documents by contacting experts in the field. The keyword for this research is “Handwashing” (Naikoba & Hayward, 2001). The authors performed data extraction to get the required information from the sources. The study involved the literature from 21 other studies that are based on promoting handwashing among healthcare workers. The second study that I have selected as a reference for my research explores the reasons for poor hand conditions among healthcare workers due to the lack of information that poor hand conditions cause infections (Erasmus et al., 2009).


The result of this study showed that the interventions influence handwashing. The authors have demonstrated in this study that handwashing is the most active method of preventing the transmission of microorganisms in health institutions and contributes to reducing morbidity and mortality due to HAI. This research found that during clinical practices, some health professionals perform their activities without taking into account the importance of handwashing, they devote themselves to performing procedures in a routine and mechanical way without being aware that they would be contributing to the promotion of nosocomial infections. Therefore, it is necessary to participate in a team of all health professionals in the use of hand washing techniques and procedures as a fundamental element in the prevention of these infections, thus responding to their responsibility as active members of the health team. The authors have motivated the development of the investigative process, and they have given recommendations for handwashing by the hospital staff before and after the surgery. The results of the study promote the education and behavior of healthcare workers to reduce Hospital Acquired Infections.

The argument of the Author

The authors argue that despite the countless efforts to improve and disseminate the practice of handwashing, the significance of this simple process has not been adequately recognized by health professionals (Erasmus et al., 2009). These measures are the main work tool that allows nurses to protect their health and develop their work efficiently, reducing the risk of transmission of microorganisms from either unrecognized or recognized sources of infection in services of health. The authors also argue for the intervention of education, behavior, knowledge, and facilities of handwashing in the hospitals for the healthcare workers to reduce hospital-acquired infections (Naikoba & Hayward, 2001).

Ethical Considerations

The authors of this paper have adopted ethical considerations. The literature on which this paper is based was accessed with the permission of the respective authors. All the ethical measures were taken to make sure that no violation of occurs of the ethical considerations. A proper plan was made for the collection of information with responsibility and with the sole objective of gathering the necessary information. The research is based mainly on 21 other studies. None of them were made public by the authors, and their personal information is also kept confidential. The study is approved by Institutional Review Board.


The study reveals that this simple practice of handwashing is essential to avoid the spread of diseases that occur when transmitting germs from one patient to another through the hands of workers Health. The authors indicated that the most common infections, often caused by germs resistant to medications, are those of the urinary tract and those that are contracted in an operating room, in addition to pneumonia and bloodstream infections. The research focused on the intervention aimed at improving compliance with handwashing, reinforcing handwashing behavior and knowledge, improving knowledge of healthcare workers, improvement of facilities in the hospitals. The author encourages the hospital administration for adjusting sink facilities for the benefit of patients and healthcare workers with the aim of reducing Hospital Acquired Infections. This qualitative research critique has summarized the research study conducted. This study will help me a lot in my research that is based on handwashing.


Naikoba, S., & Hayward, A. (2001). The effectiveness of interventions aimed at increasing handwashing in healthcare workers – a systematic review. Journal Of Hospital Infection47(3), 173-180.

Erasmus, V., Brouwer, W., van Beeck, E., Oenema, A., Daha, T., & Richardus, J. et al. (2009). A Qualitative Exploration of Reasons for Poor Hand Hygiene Among Hospital Workers Lack of Positive Role Models and of Convincing Evidence That Hand Hygiene Prevents Cross-Infection. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 30(05), 415-419.




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