Crusades are a series of tourist trips of Europeans to Palestine and adjacent territories. The attitude to this phenomenon is now ambiguous – from the pulsating anal pains of Muslims to the pink snot of remorse among tolerant Europeans, and all this is abundantly flavored with satisfying burdens among historians and masters. The essence of the myth about the holy wars is, they say, was the unjustified aggression of knights against cultured and enlightened Arabs. In such a sorrowful issue as the Crusades, finding the true reasons and premises is hardly easier than a virgin in a brothel. However, if you reject theories of conspirators, religious fanatics, and Nazis, you can sort things out.
Most often talk about the external reason: the Arabs, inspired by the sermons of Muhammad since the 7th century led such a powerful expansion that threatened not only Byzantium but… France, with which, during the greatest successes, the Arab Caliphate had a common border over the Pyrenees (in Spain Arabs will remain until the middle of the XV century). This forced everyone to go round: the RCC feared losing its flock and a serious source of funding; Kings could lose their lands and NIS ht yaks; The ladies of the world cast disheartened the very thought of fate in the harem and polygamy, the gray mass was afraid that they were about to conquer and force to pay a tax for the right to profess Christianity, or even circumcise altogether (Ibn al-Athir, 201-205).
But the external threat to Christian Europe in the form of an alien religion and worldview is far from everything. The Arabs controlled Cyprus, Crete and Sicily, and along with them the entire Mediterranean Sea from the 8th to the 12th centuries, preventing Europeans from navigating and stalling the economy of the former Roman lands, thus hampering the development of the entire Christian world. But there were also internal reasons for the campaigns…
All who go there, in the case of their death, from now on will be forgiveness of sins. The land that you inhabit has become close to your multiplicity; Wealth it is not plentiful and hardly gives bread to those who process it. From here comes the fact that you are devouring and biting each other … Let those who used to be a robber fight today fight against their brothers and fellow tribesmen. The angel from the engraving Dora as if telling the crusaders: “Our cause is right, the enemy will be defeated, and the victory will be ours!” ”
The indignant Pope of Rome, having collected heaps of nobility and simple cattle, in the year of the Lord, this 1095th, pushed a fiery speech about the need for help, though Orthodox for the whole head, still for the Christian brothers. Having added to this that the infidels are completely insolent and prevent Christians from visiting holy Jerusalem, and it would be nice to get rid of the pagans and it too, the pontiff ripped off a stormy ovation (Hunt, 201-205).
The speech of the commodity of Urban II turned out to be so incendiary and had such success that all those present immediately swore to win the Holy Land and carry the Word of God unfaithful, and not to steal and kill with impunity, as one might think. And as a token of their vow, they sewed red crosses on their clothes. Because, in fact, and the Crusaders.
In the middle Ages, Europe was OCHE devout, and the subject of all kinds of indulgences was quoted very, very. Therefore, wishing to get to Paradise for free, along with the way robbing and raping infidels, there were so many that allowed the priests for several centuries to recruit armies of thieves and whores for righteous deeds, of course (Hunt).
The first pancake came out, as usual, lumpy. To begin with, after the feast of the Assumption of the Virgin, the Christian army was stretched out on the Jews of the Rhine towns (Trier, Speyer, and Worms). The massacre was so cruel that the Jews preferred to kill their children and themselves, so as not to fall into the hands of the Crusaders. IHHS, although Raine was not on the way to Jerusalem, drank negative Eugene was carried out in the towns of the cities of Mainz, Cologne, Bamberg, no less diligently. Strictly speaking, it is this case that is considered the first mass anti- Semitic action in Europe. Moving east along the southern German and Austrian lands (Bavaria, Carinthia), the Crusaders at the same time sawed out the “infidels” – that is, all who seemed to them non-Christians (Hunt, 201-205).
Unlike the Germans, the Czechs did not endure looting: Prince Bretislav I defeated Count Lenin on of Leiningen. However, after revenge for a fellow in Christ, the pious Gottschalk ruined not only the south of the Czech Republic but also Hungary. Provision for all was not enough, so violence on religious grounds grew into an open robbery of the local population; in the ranks of the “crusaders,” robbers and monastic monsters were actively pouring in. Although the army numbered 50-60 thousand, to Asia Minor reached only 30, after which the Seljuk Turks defeated them.
Hunt, Lynn, et al. 2013. The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures: A Concise History. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s.
Ibn al-Athir. 2012. “A Muslim Perspective.” In Sources of Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures, Vol. 1, edited by Katherine J. Lualdi, 201-205. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s.