Evidence-based practices have brought about considerable improvement in the healthcare industry. They have evolved the nursing practices to incorporate evidence into medical practices. EBP helps the nurses to get assistance from the case studies, and clinical problems that originated in the past and directly relate it to the contemporary setting. One of the most primitive evidence-based practice models presented in the nursing regime is the Stetler model. The focal point of this EBP model is either an individual practicing nurse or a single organizational level. The model is different from the others model in the sense that it imparts evidence-based practice to the individual nurses as well as on the organizational setting. One of the other striking features of the Stetler model is the employment of both internal and external evidence data within the nursing practices, i.e., the quality management report of the hospital setup, national census, and relevant publications.
The implementation of the Stetler model encompasses five phases that ought to be followed for successful implementation of the Stetler model: starting with the preparation, researching the internal and external shreds of evidence, and validating them. The validation parameters are the organizational size, relevancy, and feasibility report. This is followed by the comparative evaluation of the selected evidence study with the subject matter under discussion. Then comes the crucial step of decision making in which the practitioners are bound to select vigilantly that what changes are ought to make in the current practices. This is followed by the application of the changes. Any EBP is incomplete with the feedback system, thus, evaluation is the key step of each model.
The Stetler model presented in 1976 presented a murky relationship between the research unit and the model implementation. Moreover, the preparation phase lacked thorough guidelines too. The model was revamped with improved definitions and elaborations again in 1994, now the model is comprehensive enough to be implemented in any organizational setup (Cheryl B. Stetler). Celeste R. Romp applied the Stetler model for the utilization of staff development in a Jewish hospital in Louisville. In the 422-bed community hospital, the researcher applied the Stetler mode, the preparation was done using the PICO format which has been used by (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2005). For the validation phase the guidelines for research critique were employed to analyze the selected data, and a rating system for the hierarchy of evidence was used to rate the credibility of the literature. For the comparative evaluation, the risk involved to the stakeholders like the nurses, preceptors, and patients was analyzed. For translation the plan was thoroughly documented and communicated with the staff, the pre-requisite education and expertise of the staff were analyzed to prepare the further training timeline. The power-point handouts were circulated within the department. For evaluation, summative evaluations and job satisfaction turn-out were observed. The hospital management reported a considerable improvement in the EBP.
Stetler, C. B. (2001). Updating the Stetler model of research utilization to facilitate evidence-based practice. Nursing outlook, 49(6), 272-279.
Schaffer, M.A., Sandau, K.E., Diedrick, L. (2013) Evidence‐based practice models for organizational change: overview and practical applications. Journal of Advanced Nursing 69( 5), 1197– 1209. doi: 10.1111/j.1365‐2648.2012.06122.x
Celeste R. Romp, (2009) Applying the Stetler Model of Research Utilization in Staff Development. Journal for nurses in staff development
Melnyk, B. M., & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2005). Evidence-based practice in nursing and healthcare. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins.