Explain the significance of the court cases listed below:
Doe v. Big Brothers Big Sisters of America, (2005)
Doe v. Big Brothers Big Sisters of America, (2005) case allowed businesses to be held liable for criminal acts of third parties.
Farmer v. Brennan (1994)
Farmer v. Brennan (1994) case served to ensure that prisoners are prevented from harming one another, by making prison officials who are deliberately indifferent, liable under the eighth amendment.
1. Define and identify the characteristics of institutional abuse.
Institutional abuse refers to all sex abuse of youngsters by individuals who come in contact with such children in institutional settings such as schools (Vandiver, Braithwaite, & Stafford, 2017). Institutional abuse is characterized by three processes; gaining access to victims, starting and maintaining the abuse, and concealing the abuse.
2. Describe the characteristics and prevalence of clergy, educators, childcare providers, athletic-organization employees, and civic-organization employees/volunteers who molest children.
The above-mentioned group of individuals operate with great sophistication in grooming victims as well as bystanders. Additionally, they choose employment opportunities that give them access to children, or adapt to create such opportunities (Vandiver, Braithwaite, & Stafford, 2017). Moreover, they manipulate systems to gain access to potential victims. Besides, they use behavioural or emotional problems of children to isolate and victimize them. The groups also have unsupervised access to children, giving room for victimization to take place and for the abuse to be concealed (Vandiver, Braithwaite, & Stafford, 2017). Above all, they are usually in trusted positions. On average, the prevalence of those who molest children stands at 2.8 offenders for every victim. About half are both female and male perpetrator. According to Vandiver, Braithwaite, & Stafford (2017), 48% of children are abused by males, while 2% by females.
2. Describe the characteristics and prevalence of law enforcement officers who rape.
Law enforcement officers who rape are likely recidivists. The officers conduct the act as a result of opportunity, power, authority, and isolation. What is more, they select vulnerable and weak victims, particularly, those that are also criminals such as prostitutes, and young and attractive individuals (Vandiver, Braithwaite, & Stafford, 2017). On prevalence of law enforcement officers who rape, 41% of cases of police sexual violence are carried out by recidivist officers who average four victims each over a period of three years of offending.
4. Identify types and characteristics of organizations that have recently responded to fostering rape-prone attitudes (athletic organizations, higher-education institutions, prisons, and military).
Organizations that have recently responded to fostering rape prone attitudes include professional and university athletic organizations, higher learning institutions, and military. The organizations are characterized by having individuals who have committed numerous crimes such as murder, weapons charge, assault and battery, and abuse of illegal substance (Vandiver, Braithwaite, & Stafford, 2017). Additionally, the organizations often lack policies, procedures, and actions taken on the sexual offenders. The majority of the victims of sexual abuse are usually females.
Vandiver, D., Braithwaite, J., & Stafford, M. (2017). Sex Crimes and Sex Offenders: Research and Realities. Taylor & Francis. ISBN: 9781138937093