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School Counseling Comprehensive Program Impact on Secondary Education Academic Performance

“Missouri Professional School Counselors: Ratios Matter, especially in high-poverty Schools” is the educational study conducted by Richard T. Lapan, Norman C. Gysbers, and Margaret E. Pierce in 2012. Initially, the study overviews different societal changes in the United States particularly in the state of Missouri. Authors come up with the opinion that different industrial, occupational, social, and economic changes ultimately impact the educational conditions for the students in the state (R. Lapan, Gysbers, Stanley, & Pierce, 2012). The educational paradigm becomes more challenging as overall social patterns drastically change. It is notable to mention that all the prevailing challenges are real because they drastically impact the personal, career, and overall development of students in the Missouri region. Researchers successfully explored one of the effective solutions to properly deal with educational challenges. This particular approach can be identified in the form of proper development and the implementation of comprehensive school guidance and effective programs of counseling. These particular educational programs are crucial because they provide the necessary direction to all schools and districts.

These educational programs are conducted by professional counselors who provide effective assistance to the parents, teachers, management of the educational sector, and the broader prospect of the community. These developmental programs are designed with the focus on providing a safe and conducive educational environment to all the students under the paradigm of educational institutes. These programs also help students to effectively deal with their educational and developmental challenges.

The main purpose of this particular research study is to assess the features of the implementation of comprehensive school counseling programs with the consideration of the ratios of students related to school counselors. Researchers explore the idea that previously, not much research was conducted on the feature of ratios on school counselors by referring to its effectiveness. The present study was an attempt with the particular aim of critically exploring the association between student-to-student counselor ratios with the consideration of the specific outcomes that ultimately play a role in the success of the student. The features of success can be observed in the form of graduation rates, disciplinary incidents, attendance, etc.

The particular research questions specifically related to the following study are characterized as initially assessing student-to-school-counselor ratios linked with different outcomes in case of student performance. The second research question of this study is to predict the feature that smaller student-to-school counselor ratios anticipate academic results for the students of Missouri after controlling the information regarding different demographic features. The third research question of the study is to adopt the prospect of post hoc analysis in the particular case of schools with large percentages of students with the focus of ASCA suggested ratio to address the outcomes.

Statistical methods concerning no necessary correlation were applied to assess the particular outcomes. Related data were collected from the Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education to make inferences about the research questions of the present study. School building-level student results, student-to-school-counselor ratios, and school demographics were the factors that were selected to explore the phenomenon. The data of this study comprises 481 schools in the Missouri district. The results of the study show that the lower level student-to-school counselor ratios have a better association with graduation rates and the lower level of disciplinary events. There was evidence of the high percentage of students who receive free or reduced-price lunches concerning the lower student-to-school ratios of counselors. Results of the study also reveal that the particular schools that met the standard of ASCA in the paradigm of high-poverty schools have the availability of counselors for every 250 students with a better approach to graduation, attendance, and fewer events of violations of school discipline.

The crucial aspect of necessary counseling for students was successfully explored by Carolyn Berger in the study “Bring out the Brilliance: A Counseling Intervention for Underachieving Students.” This particular research work was conducted in the year 2013 with the intention of providing a better approach concerning the paradigm of counseling in an educational setting. Initially, the author briefly discusses the issues that counselors must consider to provide a better educational approach to students. It is indicated that the number of college graduates who are career-ready plays a crucial role in the enhancement of the approach of school counselors. Statistics of the country establish the fact that although there is plenty of improvement in the area of school graduation, there is a need for more enhancement and consideration of different factors. It is crucial to mention that there are almost 1.2 million students who never attain their graduation degree. Undoubtedly, the situation requires more concern and effective steps to address the issues of the education sector. The researcher observed that there is no evidence of previous research work that focuses on examining the graduation rate in the particular case of underachieving students. He addresses the approach that school counselors can play an influential role in assessing the students who can be categorized as underperformers.

The feature of purple ose in the case of this particular research study can be identified as the researcher’s approach to determine the consideration of outing out the Brilliance. It comes with a focus on considering the role of the small group of counseling intervention based on the AOM to assess its effectiveness at enhancing achievement data and the information related to underachieving students. The feature of the hypothesis in the case of the following research study is the focus on the intervention of the Bring Out the Brilliance, which ultimately plays its role in the enhancement of student achievement information (Berger, 2013). Grade point average is the major point of consideration in this particular manner of hypothesis formation for the study. The author also considers achievement-related data hypothesized with the intention of improving to help decrease the rate of absences and disciplinary referrals. Another hypothesis for the study was that there is an indication of the acceleration of the role of organizational skills and time management scores, which decrease the facets of student’s low motivation levels and test anxiety. This particular study was also conducted with the intention to figure out the particular perceptions of the student,s which canbe categorizede as underachieving students. It is considered the crucial paradigm for understanding their approach to enhancing their academic achievement level academically.

It is crucial to mention that this research study was conducted in a specific school setting, considering the features of achievement and under-achievement students. Three particular schools in South Florida were selected for the particular focus of Bring Out the Brilliance groups. These schools were chosen by adopting the particular method of convenience sampling as it was easy for the researcher to approach these schools. There were 13 students considered participants in the study. Participants were classified into three different groups. A particular scale of the School Motivation and Learning Strategies Inventory (SMALSI) was chosen by the researcher to assess the features of the reliability and validity of the study. It was also used to figure out the features of change in the motivation of students before and after the impact of Bring Out the Brilliance group. The subscale for this study named organizational techniques (ORG), time management (TIME), low academic motivation (LOMOT), and test anxiety (TANX). Data for the study was collected in the form of grade point average (GPA), attendance, and the feature of discipline. The prospect of a paired sampled T-test indicates the results of the study. Results of the study show that there is an indication of improvement in the case of ninth- and tenth-grade underachieving students in the case of organizational skills, time management, and the feature of motivation to achieve academic goals.

“Comprehensive school counseling in Rhode Island: Access to services and student outcomes” is the particular research study that was presented by Carey Dimmitt and Belinda Wilkerson. This research work was conducted in 2012 for the specific region of Rhode Island, with a focus on the importance of school counseling. All the factors related to the study were examined during the two-year period. School counseling is a broad concept that was critically addressed by the researchers. School counseling intervention has a major role in the attainment of the desired outcomes in the case of students (Dimmitt & Wilkerson, 2012). Learning results must be enhanced by the proper consideration and implementation of the prospect of counseling. It is also necessary to understand that there are a number of hindrances that make it difficult to assess the impact of counseling in the educational institute setting. Educational results come up with many features that determine the overall prospect of counseling.

It is also crucial for the research to critically and effectively make a decision about the inclusion of the specific school outcome concerning the concept of counseling interventions in schools. Another challenge identified by the researchers is that the implementation of different counseling intervention practices in different schools and states also makes it difficult to adopt an effective approach to counseling. The particular focus of the following study is to understand the paradigm of school counseling programs with the consideration of the provision of effective services to students. It is immensely crucial to understand that to ensure that all students of different schools in the district have equal chances to approach the services of counseling. Another point of concern of this research study is to understand the learning paradigm in schools in the case of students who are characterized as economically disadvantaged students or identify as African-American and Hispanic students. Another point of consideration in the case of this particular study is to explore the association that exists between different school counseling programs and the overall prospect of student outcomes. This specific relationship helps to understand the most suitable practices that are needed to encourage students toward the facet of academic success.

It is crucial to reveal that the following study appears to have the particular purpose of addressing the features of school counseling practices and student results in Rhode Island, referring to the replication and extension of the previously performed research studies. The particular research questions related to this study can be identified as three major features. The primary approach related to the research work is to analyze whether comprehensive school counseling services were practiced in the schools of Rhode Island. The second research question related to the identification of the proper implementation of counseling services in schools on the basis of consistency. Another point of consideration in the case of the research question for this study is to analyze the outcomes of the students with the consideration of the approach of co-vary related to the aspect of the delivery of particular counseling services in schools. All three questions effectively align with the main purpose of the study, which comes with the focus on investigating the particular nature of the delivery of the approach of comprehensive school counseling services in the specific case of Rhode Island schools and evaluating the association between the particular counseling activities and the related student’s results.

The participants for the following study are characterized on the basis of the Information Works dataset, which comes with the related information. Most of the data comprises the SALT school counseling survey for the years 2007 to 2008. The study sample was based on 51 middle and high schools on the island that effectively featured the SALT survey for the particular counseling program. All the information required for the study was established by the particular approach of the Center for School Improvement and Educational Policy (CSIEP).

The Pearson correlation coefficients technique was applied to determine the association between the variables of the study. After the statistical analysis, the results of the study show that there was a strong and consistent association between the elements of the amount of counseling services in schools and the positive student results. It is also notable that the particular schools that have effective approaches to the features of free or reduced-price lunch status and the higher approach of minority students come up with fewer options for comprehensive counseling services.

The prospect of schools counseling was also effectively addressed by Richard T. Lapan, Norman C. Gysbers, and Gregory f. Petroski, in 2001, named: “Helping Seventh Graders be Safe and Successful: A Statewide Study of the Impact of Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Programs.” The focus of this particular study is to critically identify the challenges related to the particular concept and practice of school counseling in the country. It became crucial and mandatory for the schools to adopt a comprehensive approach to deal with issues such as violence, drugs, quality of life (QOL), etc., to enhance the learning perspective.

The main purpose of this study can be identified as the attempt to assess the features of the implementation of comprehensive guidance and counseling programs on the state level to figure out its impact on the particular perceptions of safety in schools. It also addresses the paradigm of students’ satisfaction with their education level, grades, and association with their teachers, and, most importantly, establishes the feature of how today’s perceptions can be effectively connected with the future directions (R. T. Lapan, Gysbers, & Petroski, 2001). Research questions for the following study were examined on the basis of three major classifications. The initial focus was to identify what are the existing indicators of safety and success in the case of students effectively aligned with their characteristics. Another research question was to determine the implementation of comprehensive guidance and counseling programs concerning the indicators of safety and success. The last research question of the study considers the crucial features of enrollment size, socioeconomic level, and the particular level of the enforcement of the counseling program, referring to their impact on the regression slope between characteristics of students and the specific indicators of safety and accomplishment.

The sample for the following study comprises an MSIP survey of seventh-grade students and middle school teachers. The required data were collected from 1992 to 1996. The stratified random sampling method was used to collect the MSIP data from the schools of Missouri State. The dataset of the study is based on 22,601 students who are seventh graders and 4,868 teachers belonging to 184 schools. The feature of MSIP, known as Missouri’s school improvement program, comes with quality standards in the case of elementary and secondary education in the state. The statistical method of hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was considered to analyze the data for the study. Multiple regression techniques were adopted under the paradigm of the HLM model. Results of this study indicate that different prospects of comprehensive counseling programs can be achieved in the case of student outcomes by controlling the specific features of socioeconomic status and enrollment size.

Holly Kayler and Jamie Sherman conducted a research study named “At-Risk Ninth-Grade Students: A Psych educational Group Approach to Increase Study Skills and Grade Point Averages” in 2009. The purpose of their study is to explore the influence of small-group counseling in order to enhance the studying behavior of ninth-grade students whose academic performance lies beneath 50 percent of their class. The authors have described the psych educational study skills group by considering the ASCA National Model®. With the help of the pretest-posttest design, they explored that studying the behavior of ninth-grade students can be supported by small-group counseling (Kayler & Sherman, 2009). They also found that the relationship of school counselors with students and their parents, as well as with other stakeholders, can be improved. The authors studied the three important areas for the academic improvement of students. These areas include cognitive and metacognitive skills, social skills, and self-management skills, which were studied by the author, assuming that these will not only increase the grade point average (GPA) of students but will also improve the interpersonal relationships of counselors, teachers, students, and parents.

In order to focus on these important areas to improve the academic performance of the students and to improve the relationship with students and other stakeholders, this study considered favorable pilot data, and a suitable group model is ninth-grade students. On the basis of GPA, the researchers chose a mixed-gender and mixed-race group, including 90 out of 101 students in ninth grade whose performance was in the bottom 50 % of their classmates. For data collection, the pretest-posttest research design was used. For this purpose, a worksheet entitled “How Do You Study?” was handed over to the students. Verbal feedback was also used for this purpose.

The pretest and posttest data of 90 students were analyzed by using “t” test statistics. The researchers used a 5-point Likert scale to test the data about time usage, persistence, organization, conscientiousness, note-taking skills, reading, and test-taking skills to explore the skills required for the academic achievements of the students with low GPAs. Although the GPAs of several students increased, the study did not find a significant mean difference between the GPAs of the students in ninth grade during the pretest and posttest as a result of the variance analysis indicated. The students discussed their thinking and the problems they faced while improving their academic skills. They also floated different ideas for improving academic performance. Through discussion groups, the researchers guided the students that they could improve their academic performance by using study skills as well as constructive behavior towards schools. The researchers found that there is a need to adopt more skills such as motivational techniques, open communication with students and their parents, and educational skills to improve the academic achievements of students in terms of GPAs.

Richard T. Lipan, Norman C. Gysbers, and Yongmin Sun presented a research study named “The Impact of More Fully Implemented Guidance Programs on the School Experiences of High School Students: A Statewide Evaluation Study” in 1997. The researchers have conducted this study statewide in order to find the relationship between diversified guidance programs and the school experiences of the students in High Schools. The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of fully comprehensive guidance programs on the desired outcomes of high school students across different states of the country. In this research study, the first goal of the researchers was to explore whether comprehensive guidance programs of high schools in different states play a major role in the academic improvement of the students (R. T. Lapan, Gysbers, & Sun, 1997). The second goal was to find out that comprehensive guidance programs in high school increase the academic performance of the students irrespective of their gender, race, socioeconomic Status of their family, school enrollment, etc. The third goal of the researchers was to investigate the possible positive influence of comprehensive guidance programs on the environment of high schools, leading to the improved academic performance of the pupils.

The fourth goal of the current research study was to find out whether the guidance programs fulfill the career development needs of high school students by providing adequate career information. In this study, the school improvement program of Missouri schools was studied to find the relationship between comprehensive guidance programs and the behavior of students toward academic performance, school environment, and career development. In order to achieve the desired goals, the researchers have used three research questions. The first research question was: is there a positive relationship between students’ features and desired outcomes? The second question examined in the current study was whether there is a positive relationship between the level of implementation of a comprehensive guidance program and students’ anticipations towards academic performance, the likeness of the school environment, and career development. The third research question focused by the researchers in this study is to explore the positive impact of the level of fully implemented guidance programs of high school on regression slope among students desired academic outcomes and a range of students characteristics including gender, socioeconomic status of parents, school environment, etc.

This study used data from a random sample of 22,964 students from Missouri high schools for the years 1992-1995, which is available in the MISP database. The variables considered in this research study were school characteristics, school environment, students’ characteristics, and students’ desired outcomes, which were tested by using a Likert scale to obtain the results for making decisions. The school characteristics consist of the level of implementation of guidance programs in high schools, enrollment size, socioeconomic status of the school, and the strength of minority students were analyzed in this study. The school environment was considered as school safety, uninterrupted classes, and the behavior of classmates. The student characteristics considered in this research included gender, parents’ qualifications, minority students, career information availed at school, etc. The desired results of the study included students’ grades, students’ perception of the quality of education for career development, and likeness of school.

A hierarchical linear modeling approach was used in this study to analyze the data of Missouri high schools and investigate the impact of comprehensive guidance programs on the academic improvement of students. The impact of the school environment and the relationship between students’ characteristics and outcomes were achieved by using regression slope and interception. In order to measure the statistical significance, the researchers have used a t-test. The findings of the hierarchical linear model supported the four goals of this study. The findings showed that the schools that have implemented comprehensive guidance programs are playing a major role in improving the academic performance of their students. The students reading in those schools that have implemented comprehensive guidance programs believed that their schools are providing adequate career development information and that they like their school environment more than other students. The study also found that comprehensive guidance programs do not influence the relationship between students’ outcomes and the gender, race, and socioeconomic status of students.


Berger, C. (2013). Bring out the brilliance: A counseling intervention for underachieving students. Professional School Counseling, 17(1), 86–96.

Dimmitt, C., & Wilkerson, B. (2012). Comprehensive school counseling in Rhode Island: Access to services and student outcomes. Professional School Counseling, 16(2), 125–135.

Kayler, H., & Sherman, J. (2009). At-risk ninth-grade students: A psychoeducational group approach to increase study skills and grade point averages. Professional School Counseling, 12(6), 434–439.

Lapan, R., Gysbers, N., Stanley, B., & Pierce, M. (2012). Missouri professional school counselors: Ratios matter, especially in high-poverty schools. Professional School Counseling, 16(2), 108–116.

Lapan, R. T., Gysbers, N. C., & Petroski, G. F. (2001). Helping seventh graders be safe and successful: A statewide study of the impact of comprehensive guidance and counseling programs. Journal of Counseling & Development, 79(3), 320–330.

Lapan, R. T., Gysbers, N. C., & Sun, Y. (1997). The impact of more fully implemented guidance programs on the school experiences of high school students: A statewide evaluation study. Journal of Counseling & Development, 75(4), 292–302.



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