- Does sexual and domestic violence affect women more than men?
- What is the change in the level of sexual and domestic violence in the university since the intervention of bystander?
- State And Define Main Independent And Dependent Conceptual Variables
The conceptual variables are variables that researcher thinks up before commencing with the study; she/he research wants to measure them. The main variable bystander intervention wants to measure is the behaviors of students. Factors for measuring student behavior are the social norms, normal and acceptable behavior. Another thing is intelligence and the knowledge of the students towards addressing domestic violence among themselves. The researcher may consider the g-factor for instance that is a psychological way of handling a huge problem (Anne Fenton, Dr. Rachel,.p28)
The dependant conceptual variables are the variables that depend on other factors so that it can be measured. They depend on experiments for measurement to identify the independent variable they depend on, Researchers can make changes on the independent variables to get the resulting dependent variables. The suitable target of violence against women is variable that depends on the high criminal case happening in the university. The motivated offender is also a variable that explains that violence is prevented after depending on the risk of an individual being charged and reported for violent behaviors.
Specifically States how the independent and dependent variables are operationalized.
The dependent variable in the research is the behavior of university students. The behavior of the students is measured by use of social norms that determine the rules of a certain group of people or instance the behavior of females at the university. If certain messages are seen on certain behavior, individual will have to correct the behavior. Knowledge is another variable in the study; it’s seen when one is expected to notice the problem in the university. (Anne Fenton, Dr. Rachel,p.38)
The availability of evidence on social violence is a dependent variable; for evidence factors causing should be identified. The violence is rooted from the relations and roles in gender in the society. Feeling responsible is a variable that the researcher uses to show the effects of bystander intervene on the problem. It’s manipulated by the way students strive to prevent the violence.
Relationships between Operationalized Independent And Dependent Variables
The main relationship between the variables is that the independent variables cause some change in the dependent variables while the dependent variables do not necessarily cause some change to an independent variable. The main relationship is that the variable is in the way they are used in the prevention of domestic violence through creating good relationship among the peers and the participants.
Relationship between the operationally independent and dependent variables from experiments
The results show the significant increase in the sense of helping the domestic violence victim from pre-test to post-test is (n=148;p<001).Amar and Kesler (2012)talks in the bystander were reporting that there is a significant decrease in the denial violence in the university from (n=53;p<001) and the measured denial behavior also decreased in the university. The environment evaluation is caused by the changes in behaviors of the college making the variables related.
The intervention initiative to address the causes of the problem is not taken seriously by students. This created a poor variation in implementation and measures used to increase intervention. The variables are numerous hence unable to capture efficiency of bystander program fighting violence. The increased demand for the programme has achieved an effective way of preventing sexual and domestic violence against women.
The strengths of the bystander programme to deal with violence are that it has the confidence to intervene. The report shows that there is significant efficiency in the scores from the pretest and post test of (n = 193; p = .000).The study has the data intention that helped in increasing intervention. The participants in the programme have also increased so that they learn about domestic violence. (Anne Fenton, Dr. Rachel,p.66)The weaknesses are that bystander has difficulties in measuring the community changes in the level of violence. There are also a lot of difficulties in measuring the bystander intentions required end as new programmes are implemented. Social norms have changed positively causing less problematic evidence in the community. Even with the imperfect measures, there is a positive change in the participants in bystander programmes. The changes are cognitive, behavioral and attitudinal.
Anne Fenton, Dr. Rachel. A Review Of Evidence For Bystander Intervention To Prevent Sexual And Domestic Violence In Universities. LONDON, PHE Publications Gateway, 2016, http://file:///C:/Users/Daisy/Downloads/PHE_PublishedLitReviewApr2016.pdf.