In mining, there are the extractors who dig deep to extract the raw minerals before they are sorted according to the level of mineral levels. According to Diavik Mines, 130 million carats of diamond are mined annually. Canada is the fourth about the global diamond production. Diamond kimberlites are very valuable. Mining also employs about 598,000 people across Canada. After excavation, the rough diamonds are sold to the intermediaries. Here they are cut and polished and sold to the manufacturers of different items. The manufacturer’s design and brand their products with varying carats of diamond. The more the carats, the more the cost.
Below is my diamond watch which is as a result of mining. The diamond is micro-processed, polished, and with high precision cut and combined with other materials to come up with such an impressive watch. The diamond is combined with creative ideas and other materials for the crystal, the case, and the strap to make the vision of such a look come into reality. I would have gone for a golden watch, but it was very costly.
Agriculture: My Coat
Agriculture is the act of farming encompassing land tilling, growing of crops, and rearing animals. Agriculture in Canada has significantly changed since the Second World War which has led to economic and social changes. It has improved the methods of food production, processing, handling, selling, and consumption. Some percentage of the farm and seafood produce are processed to form organic products such as fuel, which is extracted from corn, sugarcane, or sorghum. Other raw materials make animal feeds which nourish the animals to produce dairy and beef products.
Consider my cashmere made from goat’s fur. The cashmere was spun into yarns after being harvested from the goat. The thread was then knitted into fabrics or clothing. The coat is made of 14.2 microns of cashmere fiber from Mongolia China to make the softest parts like the collar and sleeve. The pockets and the outside elements are made of cashmere from Iran and Afghanistan respectively. The cashmere from these two countries is rougher than that from China. It requires tender care since it peels easily. The coat is tightly woven, and it is of high quality. There also coats of the same type made from wool which can also be equally warm and classy.
Afforestation is planting of trees on land that was barren to make a forest. It is an important practice because it helps conserve the environment and natural resources. The human population is overly growing exerting excess pressure on natural resources. The human activities are going overboard to become disastrous. The air, land, water, and sound are getting contaminated leading to global warming and climate change. There is need to extend life by increasing natural resources and reducing exploitation. The act is being practiced by individuals, government, and non-governmental organizations. Through planting of trees, we create forests which fulfill commercial needs of human beings. The Canadian forest industry grows both hardwood and softwood species. Plants reduce soil erosion, provide fruits, fodder, shield excess wind and sunlight, and also retain water.
Another benefit of plants is the provision of timber. Wood has been used to make this table.
The foot and the base are made of oak since it has the high tensile strength to support the weight. The block front is made of pine softwood which gives a lustrous look. It also helps to make the table light. The top part is made of imported cypress trees from Africa. It was also possible to purchase one whose top is made of glass but, this one is fragile. However, it has a classy look. Cypress is used for the top part since it is light, durable, and tolerant to cracks, splints, and warping.
Communication: my iPhone
Communication is the exchange of information via uttered words, written, or using other media. Human geographers focus on specific ways via which information, ideas, impressions, feelings, beliefs, or preferences are circulated via space. Varied texts represent places of scales from one place to the cosmos. Geographically, communication represents sites and mingle in spaces. Today’s communication has made the world to turn to a global village. Merging computers and telecommunication leads to an integrated electronic network. It eases daily life and work by becoming part of the regular living. The satellites in space have brought revolutions in the communication sector which are controlled using computers.
Part of my daily living involves the use of an Apple iPhone 5. It has a 4-inch screen with 640 pixels. It has a 1.3 GHz processor which makes it receive and send information very fast. It has a high quality camera and a single SIM. It connects to WI-FI, GPS, Bluetooth, 3G, and 4G. Such features facilitate fast login in emails, social media, and browsers. I can take selfies and send them to my friend in Asia within a second. I communicate with many people across the continents facilitated by the satellites put in place. There are other brands of the phone, but I find apple iPhones lucrative, classy, and very fast.
The World Tourist Organization recognizes a person spending a night or more but less than a year in a place other than their residence as a tourist. Tourism is a leading economic, social, and environmental factor. It affects the local economy, the culture of the residents, the developments in the area, ecology, and landscape. Tourists visit different regions each giving a different thrilling experience. Tourism is characterized by viewing scenes, places, wildlife, cultures, sports, etc. It also involves activities like taking photos, sunbathing, dining, videos, postcards, etc. Canada is rich in beautiful landscapes and attraction sites which travelers can sightsee. From the coast to the upcountry, Canada is home to diversified cultures and natural wonders.
In summer 2017 I toured some of the sites in Canada. I used my iPhone to take several photos which I compiled into an album. Some of these include the Niagara Falls which attracts millions of tourists annually.
It is situated about 128 km from Toronto. There are also photos taken from Toronto CN Tower which is a landmark in the city. It is among the tallest buildings in the world making 553 meters. It gives a beautiful angle to view the city.
Attached is a video clip for some of the attraction sites
Transportation: Means of Transport
The human population is very high. The Transport Canada is in charge of transport under directions from federal government. The principal means of transport are air, rail, road, and maritime at the coast. Due to the vast land, Canada being the world’s second-largest country, many people prefer traveling by air between main towns. The country has interconnected railway network which cuts across the country. They also use buses, but they are long leading to greater distances. The ferry is used at the coast to transport passengers, goods, and vehicles. The system is excellent which encourages trade. Goods are quickly moved from one city to another for sale and ready market easily provided.
The transport system comes along with well-connected communication network. There is 24 hours and seven days a week accessible and operating Toronto Pearson International Airport. According to the Transportation Safety Board of Canada, there are about 31,706,171 registered road vehicles in the country. These consume approximately 42.4 million cubic meters of gasoline and 11.21 million cubic meters of diesel. The transport sector generates 35% of the GDP to the total economy. Some of the transport industries include:
The Trans-Canada highway in Chilliwack, BC
Toronto Pearson, Canada’s busiest airport
Trade: Product Space
Trade interchange of goods and service for money or other assets. In 2016, Canada exported $387Billions and imported $399 Billion making her the 12th most extensive exporter globally. The highest exports are in cars which constitute about 12.7% of the total exports. Coming second is crude petroleum at 10.3%. This shows that the country is doing great regarding manufacturing motor vehicles and fuel exploration. In the same year, Canada emerged the 9th largest importer globally. The highest importation was done on cars at 6.60% followed by the vehicle parts at 5.12%.
The biggest exports are destined for the United States followed by China, the United Kingdom, Japan, and Mexico. She imports largely from the U.S., China, Germany, Mexico, and Japan. The product space connects the products whose probability of being co-exported is high. It is used in predicting the evolution of the country’s export structures. Canada exports 243 products revealing comparative (implying that her portion in global exports is more significant than the expected regarding the economy and global market). In this product space, the items are colored depending on their Product Gini Index (PGI). This refers to the level of income inequalities expected for the states exporting an object.
Industrialization: Industrial Revolution
Industrialization is the process which shifts the epicenters of economic and social activities to concentrate on work, wages, and income generation. In Canada, the transformations assumed two phases. In the first one, economic and social dimensions changed from agricultural practices and natural resources extractions to manufacturing. The subsequent stage the economic and social practices moved from rural cottage industries to urban set ups. It majorly happen under private ownership of the factories where the citizens viewed it as a wage generating activity for the living. Industrialization contributed significantly to changes in work, economy, and society.
Although it has taken several decades, it is still on-going since it is a revolutionary process. Industrial revolution implies that it shifted from being agricultural to manufacturing and services, alterations that fundamentally changed the human way of life. Today, the manufacturing sector is one of the major country’s economic producer, although not the major one. It has primarily led to urbanization and influenced human settlement in Canada. Some regions exclusively set aside for industries with no personal residence. The video explains the specific path that Canada has taken to the industrial revolution.
Land Reclamation: The Canadian Forest Service (CFS) and the Natural Resources Canada aim at reclaiming the land changed during mining, gas, and oil operations. The processes often happen in forested areas. They enhance carbon and nutrients cycling in the ecosystem. Reclamation opens up for a long-term monitor to test whether the reclaimed land objectively matches the land’s capacity. Getting back former mines to landscapes is a move that the Canadian government and private groups are assuming unanimously. In so doing they will do reforestation by planting trees. At the same time, it will solve the issue of settlement as it will open up more residential space. It will thus lower human population in the cities which are congested.
In future, the trees become sources of wood and timber. The ecosystem created will also be an ample habitat for wildlife. Reclaimed land will lower damages on buildings and structures which are prone to subsidizing due to floods. Reclaiming the land is not an issue of having projects here and others there. The law provides that after extracting the mineral, the involved company should try to return the land to its original state. It does not have to be the same but it should represent the boreal ecosystem. Below are the images of Mildred Lake Oil Sands mine in Canada before and after reclamation was carried out.
Canada is filled with flowing rivers, lakes, and a vast coastline which are perfect for fish. Fish provides nutrients that essentially develop the cognitive and physical aspects of human beings. The human population is growing very fast pointing pressure at the natural resources. There is need to get alternative sources of food to these people. Even in hard economic times, people need food. A high-protein diet is essential to provide energy for financial input. Over-fishing is a problem that is affecting the fishing industry in the whole world leading to loss of species.
Aquaculture has been brought in to relieve strain on wild species to match up the demand standards. It ensures consistent supplies of aquatic species like fish, crustaceans, and other aquatic lives. It involves breeding, nurturing, and collecting biotic factors in water in all types of the water environment. The procedure is of two kinds- marine and freshwater. The marine type gives factors such as oysters, clams, mussels, shrimps, seaweeds, and fish. It is carried out in net pens in water bodies or tanks on land. The freshwater gives species like catfish and trout. It is carried out ponds and in human-made systems. Aquaculture is an economic booster and also preserves the environment by caring for wildlife.
Trade: Protective Helmet
Canada imports a lot of automobiles from other manufacturing countries like China and Japan. It, however, imposes an 8.5% import duty fee on all helmets imported to Canada. Before these helmets are sold to the consumers, they undergo manufacturing process, traded on, and transported to the buyer. Below is my motorcycle helmet which was manufactured in Japan and transported to be sold in Canada.
The parts of the helmets are made from high-quality materials processed by different processing companies. For example, the carbon fiber and metallic rivets. The face shield is made of polycarbonate produced by reacting monomers to form a polymer. The polycarbonate is then sold to the manufacturers after being processed. The retention system is made of synthetic fiber to give strict breaking and the required tensile strength. It is attached to the helmet using sturdy metal rivets, bought from a manufacturer. It also has a ventilation system for allowing in fresh air and exhaling the humid air. The outer shell is made of reinforced polymer fibers or thermoplastics.
There are assembling industries in Canada that are doing exceptionally well. These collect manufactured parts from various processors to come up with a finished good. They design products putting in mind costs of the components ensuring they minimize the costs of production. Most of the manufacturing companies in Canada do not manufacture the bicycles but re-brand the imported ones. For example, the bicycle handlebar and the fork are made of tensile materials. Some include diamond which can withstand strong force. The diamond is mined in Canada as one of the major minerals exported from the country.
The tires are made of rubber produced in Canadian industries and reflectors made of glass. The glass is manufactured in Canadian glass production companies like the Dominion Glass and Mallorytown Glass Works. Below is a photo of a bicycle showing some of the parts.
Vegetable farmers using greenhouses have become the critical supplies of the Canadian grocery market. They have embraced Integrated Pest Management by doing away with harmful insects and plants. As at December 2016, there were about 658 operational greenhouses in Canada. The production levels were 590,765 metric tonnes. The farming employs about 5,514 people in a year and 6,000 seasonal staff. The costs of exports from greenhouses average at about $827.5 billion annually. Most of the vegetable products are exported to the United States, Japan, and Taiwan. The major provinces, which are actively taking part in greenhouse farming are Ontario (68%), BC (21%), and Quebec (6.5%). They have taken care of the environment by lowering water wastage and consumption. Even though the production expenses are high, the vegetables produced have confirmed to be a profitable investment which boosts the economy and trade. The vegetables produced are consumed locally and some internationally. Canadian horticulture has increased tremendously due to the modern farming techniques.
Urbanization refers to the process where the population in a country tends to grow bigger, being interdependent over time. It is caused by interlinks among the social, economic, political, technological, demographic, and environmental alterations. Canada’s cities are expanding very fast despite the government exertions to contain the growth. Canada’s Statistics 2016 census show that the urbanization trend has been rising tremendously. Over 81% of Canada’s citizens reside in the urban area.
Major cities are facing population shifts with the suburbs booming. For instance, Toronto and Vancouver are increasing daily with residential being built in the downtown cores. The population shift has forced the municipalities to spend more on social amenities. According to the United Nation’s findings, in 2014 Canada was ranked 40th in global urbanization. However, other areas have noted a decrease in population due to the immigration of people. Such acts have led to imbalance and pressure on some natural resources.
Environmental Conservation: Biodiversity
Canada is firmly rooted in conserving the biodiversity. Biodiversity refers to the variability of biotic factors from varied sources, both terrestrial, marine, or aquatic. Canada was the first country to endorse the UN Convention on Biological Diversity in 1992. Such acts help conserve resources like water for future benefits. The government in conjunction with other agencies have set 110 million hectares of land for biodiversification.
The wildlife, like the polar bear, is being conserved which will be very helpful in attracting tourists. Tourists are a source of income. Their migration brings diversification of people too. Canadians are at the forefront to discuss climatic changes and their impacts. They are committed to reducing greenhouse emissions by 18% between 2005 and 2020. There are regulatory plans for each sector applicable in addressing the primary sources of emissions. Below is a video showing some biodiversity practices in Canada.
Population: Demographic dimensions
Canadian population has increased since 1934. The current count is 36,850,164 people according to the latest United Nations estimations as per February 2018. The population constitutes 0.48% of the world’s population. It is ranked at position 38 in the world’s population. The population density is ten people per square miles. The total acreage of land is 9.093 million square kilometers. 82% of the citizens reside in urban areas, which is equivalent to 30.413 million people. The median age is 40.7 years. The number of births in 2015/2016 fiscal year was 392,903. This was an increase from the previous year, which can be attributed to several factors. For example, improved health systems, adequate supply of food and water, or immigration. Most Canadians (45%) are married by the law. Most of the people are aged between 25 and 64 years. Below is a graph showing the growth, natural increase, and net migration since 1985 to 2016.
Technology: My Computer
Technology is the collection of arts and skills in the manufacturing and production of goods and services. The technology uses scientific know-how for scientific and practical knowledge. Canada’s technology is growing continuously. Companies based on technology are propagating the GDP, being sources of income, jobs, and being applied in other industries. Technology is spreading innovations and entrepreneurship.
Various concepts in geography have been integrated to come up with the machine. The machine depends on electricity for power. Electricity is generated from the power stations and then distributed to the users using cables. The computer has copper, lead, gold, and other alloys of metals which are excavated via mining. Lead is for soldering external damages and radiation. There is a plastic stabilizer in the PVC cable. Plastics are manufactured by independent companies. It uses gold to pin plate and copper to conduct power from the source for charging. Below is an image of a computer.
Energy: My kitchen bulb
Electricity has significantly influenced the economic and political ways of living since the 19th century. The government owns the primary power generation, transmissions, and distributions of electricity. The high population provides a ready market. Canada is the second-biggest generator of hydropower after China. Companies, houses, offices, factories, and companies receive adequate supply. It also has the CANDU nuclear reactors to supplement needs in electrical power. The country has tapped wind and tidal waves to generate more electricity. There are also solar panels that depend on sunlight for power.
It also prides in the various sources of fuel like coal from mining, wood from trees, petroleum and liquid fuels mined from supplies. The country is also rich in uranium. These sources are tapped, generation done, and power transported according to the transformers. Eventually, it gets to the house for a domestic purpose like lighting, cooking, ironing, etc. below is an image of a bulb in use.
Industrialization: Neighbor’s Car
Industries may indulge in manufacturing or processing of goods to create new items or add value to a commodity. Manufacturing industries significantly share in the industrial sectors in Canada. The end product can either act as a finished commodity for retailing or as a standard item in the production processes. The Canadian government has put in place public policies to support automotive manufacturing and emerging technologies.
My neighbor’s car parts were made in Japan. They were transported by sea to get to Canada. The metals making the car were mined in Toronto and exported to Japan. Here they were used to manufacture vehicle parts. Some of them were used in assembling the car while others were sold as spare parts. The reflectors are made of glass obtained from mines. The car was joined by Toyota Canada. Below is the image.
Environment: Air Pollution
Air pollution is the introduction of a harmful substance in the air. Pollution can occur on land, water, air, sound, and soil. It is triggered by human actions. Canada has experienced soil and land pollution due to mining activities. The industrialization has also led to soil and water pollutions. Air pollution from industries has endangered wildlife thus negatively affecting tourism. Agricultural activities and horticulture have also contributed to soil degradations due to the use of fertilizers. Reports show that in 2015, about Canadian people spent about $36 billion treating diseases and illnesses caused by air pollution alone. The coal mining has also led to the release of harmful pellets in the air. People have suffered from air pollution-related diseases like asthma and lung cancer. Industries are also releasing toxic gases into the atmosphere. The urban centers are more adversely affected than the rural residents. The photo below shows industries releasing the contaminated substance in air.