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Health Care, Medical

Marburg Virus Transmission

Genetic Code

RNA and mRNA genomics determine the cDNA clones that originate from them, which form 3000 nucleotides out of a 3′ end Marburg Virus genome (MBG). Sequence shows are repetitive and have a full nucleoprotein (NP) gene during extreme 3′ end. At the final stage of the 5′ end of NP, mRNA is discovered, as well as polyadenylation for the NP site. (3′ UUCUUCUUAUAAUU…) is the transcriptional start, and (3′ UAAUUCUUUUU) is the end of the MBG NP gene signal.

Transmission

Marburg virus transmits from animals to humans. Being in contact with bat feces or aerosols without using gloves is the most original of the virus, for example, as in two cases of tourists in Uganda back in 2008 (Amman and Towner. et al., 2015). When a person gets the infection from animals, he or she transmits it to other people through contact with an infected person’s body fluid. Similar to other viral diseases like Ebola, if you get in touch with an infected person’s blood or tissues by using their equipment or other objects, you catch the Marburg virus. Caregivers in homes or hospitals can get infected by this virus through accidental contact with an infected patient needle. Burial practices in some communities where they come into contact with the body of an infected person, the virus will spread to the community. Transmission can occur through sex with a person who has been exposed to caves and mines inhabited by a flock of bats. The semen of an infected person transmits the virus to another individual.

Target Population

Marburg virus, also formerly known as Marburg hemorrhagic fever, can infect anybody from children to adults. Mostly, the people who love to adventure in caves and forests are at high risk of infection. The bats that are affected gather in a cave together, and a person might walk into the population, spooking the bats and, in the process, get infected. A scientist who researches animals like monkeys is at high risk of the virus infection. For example, in Germany and Serbia, two outbreaks of the virus occurred in 1967, which are associated with green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) transported from Uganda (Hashiquachi and Saphire. et al., 2015).

Is Marburg Virus Lytic or Lysogenic?

A negative strand known as RNA filovirus multiplies in cytoplasm cells after the process of endocytosis. RNA-negative strands don’t combine with the genome cell host, making the virus lytic and not lysogenic. This virus kills the host cell in an instant and doesn’t merge with the cell (Hashiquachi and Saphire. et al., 2015). Marburg virus starts with the flu, then vomiting, diarrhea, rash, and bleeding, especially in the GI tract. Monkeys are the central origin of the Marburg virus, and patients who are infected are put in a level 5 isolation chamber.

Does the Marburg virus have a vaccine?

Marburg virus is a rare disease, just like Ebola, and both have high fatality rates of 88%. When a person gets infected by the Marburg virus, the illness starts immediately with a severe headache and malaise. The disease manifests between ranges of 5 to 7 days, with a victim showing bleeding from several places. There is no specific antiviral treatment or vaccine available for the condition, and people infected require an efficient procedure, which is supportive therapy. Patients infected with the Marburg virus are severely dehydrated and in need of fluids or rehydration with a liquid mixed with electrolytes. This disease first broke out in Marburg, Germany, and it’s named after this place (Amman and Towner. et al., 2015).

Marburg viral infection is prevented by creating awareness among people, especially In Uganda, where it originates from bats and monkeys. People adventuring in caves should wear protective gear when coming into contact with bats. Scientists who are testing animals like monkeys in the lab should take precautions when taking fluid or tissue samples of the animals.

References

Amman, B. R., Jones, M. E., Sealy, T. K., Uebelhoer, L. S., Schuh, A. J., Bird, B. H., … & Towner, J. S. (2015). Oral shedding of Marburg virus in experimentally infected Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus). Journal of wildlife diseases, 51(1), 113-124.
Hashiguchi, T., Fusco, M. L., Bornholdt, Z. A., Lee, J. E., Flyak, A. I., Matsuoka, R., … & Saphire, E. O. (2015). Structural basis for Marburg virus neutralization by a cross-reactive human antibody. Cell, 160(5), 904-912.

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