Taking account of the previous literature conducted in this field, Learning Disabilities can be viewed as a vast term envisaging a variety of learning complexities related to people of all age groups. Learning disabilities are generally associated with “psychological comorbidities” (Willcutt, 2000). Often, the terms disabilities and disorders are used interactively, however, there is a difference between these two terms. The term “disorder” is associated with medical and scientific terms. On the other hand, the word “disability” in the paradigm of learning disabilities is a legal term that is mentioned in the Right of Persons with Disabilities Act (Kohli et al., 2018). Despite the wide variety of proposed guidelines and research on Learning disabilities and learning-disabled individuals, the agreement upon a unified and standard definition is difficult to achieve. (Szklut et al., 1995). Therefore, a variety of definitions are stated in different researches envisaging different types of learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities can also be defined as a collection of various disorders that may affect the individual’s cognition, acquisition, retention, socialization, organization, comprehension, or use of verbal or nonverbal information (PACFOLD, 2002).
The prime causes of learning disabilities are genetic, neurobiological factors, or any physical damage that changes the functions of the brain in a way that disturbs one or more cognitive processes related to learning and comprehension skills. A learning disability can be perceived as a “reduced intellectual ability and functional difficulty with everyday chores and activities in an individual” (Rutter, 1974). Furthermore, research claims that the main cause of learning disabilities are neurobiological factors because of unrevealed brain pathology (Lyon et al., 2003). In recent studies, hereditary and environmental aspects have shown mutual influence in the development and triggering of learning disabilities (Shaywitz, 1998). Learning disabilities can be categorized into verbal and non-verbal disabilities such as dyslexia, dysgraphia, dyscalculia, and visual-spatial organization problem (Handler et al., 2011). The effects of learning disabilities prevail from childhood to adulthood because reading, writing, and socialization are essential proponents of daily life. The individuals suffering from these disabilities have a hard time socializing in academic, professional, and personal life. The person suffering from a learning disability also faces limited employment opportunities. Adults who suffer from a learning disability, face a major blow in their life when their professional opportunities are limited. These limited professional opportunities significantly make the person’s personal and professional life difficult. The social care and medical services get limited, when the child enters his or her adult age (later on old) or when he or she does not have his or her family to take care of him. According to a research study, the residential services, social care, and family caregiving for older people are prominently set apart from the mainstream (Hogg & Lambe, 1998). Furthermore, it emphasizes that older people suffering from learning disabilities require more attention and services which are not given to them.
The family support, medical health care, and services for the people suffering from any type of learning disability is a poignant paradigm to be focused on. However, people focus on the victim’s learning disability rather than their ability. The concerned family members are worried about their relative’s (suffering from learning disability) future from hate crime, bullying, maltreatment, and exploitation. There is very little evidence for adults suffering from learning disabilities to have access to medical care and services. The process of aging immensely influences learning disabilities, as adults with a learning disability are more prone to suffer from physical problems as well. Therefore, medical research and policies should be conducted and implemented to provide efficient medical care and services to aged people who are suffering from learning disabilities.
The families of the person (suffering from LD) claim the thoughts of the future to be terrifying because of no proper medical care, policies, and incentives for adults facing learning disabilities. (Towers – Improving Support for People with Learning Disabilities. Pdf, n.d.). McCombie suggests that the views of families of the learning disability individual should be the foremost priority upon views about medical/ government services in practice (McCombie & Chilvers, 2005). In one of the recent studies, the whole family of the individual (suffering from a learning disability) should be viewed as a “priority client” and was shocked about the absence of medical care and services for the adult users (Knox, 2000).
According to Moss and Patel’s research study, there is a significantly high rate of people with learning disabilities above the age of 50 to be suffering from dementia. Adults suffering from any learning disability can acquire dementia. The study conducted on 101 adult people (above 50) with learning disabilities deducted that 12 adults were additionally suffering from other physical health problems. (Moss & Patel, 1997).
In contemporary society, social care and improved medical technologies have radically increased the life expectancy of people in developing and developed countries. (Kinsella, 1995). Therefore, the chances of the prevalence of learning disabilities have increased in adults after the age of 50. The main premise of social and health/medical care services for older people suffering from learning disabilities requires more care and attention. Older people require a more responsive social care environment and acknowledgment that as they grow old, their needs change. Therefore, adults and aged people with a learning disability require more attention and care to fulfill their needs. The health care and social care workers should cater to the people with a learning disability who have suffered any change in their family circumstances. They should provide emotional support to these people along with health care.
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