Indian cuisine is the world-renowned and diverse cuisines which are characterized by several species and vegetables. It is has been regarded as the best and most healthy cuisine due to the fact that it is naturally prepared to reflect the diversity of the world. The cuisine is well prepared using almost all techniques of cooking and then added species which makes it very intimidating to most people. The cuisine revolved around cultural interaction with other neighboring societies such as Persia, Mongols, and Ancient Greek. Cultural belief plays a crucial role in the formation of Indian cuisine since vegetarianism is widely practiced in Buddhist, Jain, and Hindu society. The Indian religion makes it difficult to sell certain products such as pork and beef in the market. And therefore, fast-food restaurants had to change their products and allied themselves with India culture for them to succeed in the market.
The history of Indian cuisine is very old and revolving. It started in 1500 BC with the coming of Aryans. During those days the food was very simple since the people of Aryan were agriculturalists and therefore, all the ingredients used for the preparation of the cuisine were natural. However, the cuisine has revolved and several species and even methods of preparation and ingredients used for preparation have also changed due to globalization. Though India Cuisine has still remained and is offered on almost all streets in India and other countries across the globe, the cuisine has transformed and it is offered in different dishes. Indian food such as chicken tikka masala has strongly transformed the world and is offered in many restaurants across the world. Globalization has made it possible for Indian cuisine to be recognized in several hotels and also made other cultures adopt similar cuisine as matter of healthy concern (Gauchat, 2017, P. 23).
A recent book “Curried Culture: Indian Food in the Age of Globalization,” by Krishnedu Ray and Tulasi Srinivas pointed out that Indian Cuisine or food has undergone through economic integration with the world and it has been influenced by globalization similar to other South Asia foods. According to Gauchat (2017, p. 15), when people think of curry what comes to mind is Indian food. In fact, several dishes or food across the world are currently being prepared using curry and therefore, it shows how Indian cuisine has transformed the cookery industry due to globalization. Globalization has helped in strengthen the local firms in the cookery or hotel industry which serve Indian Cuisine. Indian food has not lost its identity but merely changes for the better to incorporate the new and diverse ingredients and processes discovered as a result of globalization.
Globalization has changed the demand for traditional food such as wheat, rice, pulses, and cereals to animal products. Indians consume more animal products than vegetables as traditionally known and therefore, this has transformed the preparation and presentation of Indian cuisine as well. Indian cuisine are prepared using chicken, and other animal products in order to compete with several western fast-food restaurants which have come and established in India (Bhoje, 2015, p. 12). Indians were well-known as vegetarians due to religious and cultural practices which have existed for hundreds of years. They were known for wheat, pulses, and other vegetables which were used to prepare their cuisine. The changing world has compelled the community or society to adapt to the changing trend and include animal products in their diets.
The economic transformation which started in the early 1980s transformed India, as a result, the number of middle-class families increased. This increased the frequency at which Indian middle families visit restaurants for food hence started to change the diet and taste of many Indians. However, in the 1990s the change of taste and diet due to overgrowing urban areas and globalization as well led to the establishment of fast food restaurants in India and therefore, it forced the traditional Indian restaurants to adapt to the changes and introduce new processes and ingredients of Indian cuisine.
However, the paper focuses on how Indian cuisine has evolved over time from the old and authentic cooking practices to the acceptance of western culture and fast food. It also analyses the impact of Indian cuisine on eating practices and the effect on the business of different cuisines from around the world. Over time India has become a multicultural nation accepting food from all over the world because of its growing economy and the migration of people to India from different parts of the world. There are several international fast-food restaurants in India located on almost every street. It is also noted that several Indians have moved to urban centres and adapted to western lifestyles and therefore, it allows international fast food restaurants to make realize high sales.
Globalization has brought several fast food companies such as McDonald, Subway, KFC, and others to India. This is due to the fact that Indians have suddenly accepted all types of food and due to the transformation of the world. The types of food which are offered in India are no longer traditional cuisine but a mixture of fast food and vegetable cuisine. Research has shown that almost major international fast food restaurants have established their businesses in India changing the demand and the consumption of traditionally known food top fast food. This has resulted to change in the ingredients of Indian cuisine as well, it is noted that Indian cuisine is currently being prepared using chicken, and other animal products which is new due to the fact that Indian cuisine was known as vegetable-oriented dishes. The competition in the industry and the changing trend and demand for readily available food have made it possible for fast-food restaurants to excel in the Indian market (Michael, 2016, p. 23).
India cuisine is greatly influenced by religion, it is because India is traditionally practiced Hindu, and Buddhism, and some practice Jain and Islam. The majority of citizens practice Hinduism which does not eat beef. And therefore, several cuisines do not come with beef content or products but there are some which are served with chicken. The majority of Indians are vegetarians therefore, most cuisines do not have animal products. Historically, Indians are known as gatherings of vegetables and the practice made them vegetarians and it affects the entire Indian food industry. The fact that several international restraints have been established in India, it does not change the religious belief and therefore, most fast food restaurants offer purely or a mixture of vegetables and cuisine with animal products as well.
Even though religious beliefs and practices have not changed due to globalization Indian cuisine had to adjust to the changes and currently, several restaurants s served animal products as part of Indian cuisine. The muslin factor has also played a major role in shaping the food industry in India due to the fact that several restaurants do not serve or process pork. But the current situation in India makes it difficult to determine the perspective of cuisine due to several international people or immigrants which has made it possible for the fast food restaurant to succeed and also influence indigenous Indians to eat another cuisine outside vegetable-made cuisine.
Several studies have indicated that India is among the highest-growing industry globally and it is estimated to be worth USD 39.2 billion and growing at the rate of 20% per year. According to Michael (2016, p. 18), food has been rated as one of the largest industries in India’s retail business valued at USD 490 billion in 2015. It is expected to increase steadily for the next decade to USD 894 billion by the year 2020. It is a result of changing culture and the establishment of several international food chain restaurants in India. Research has shown that the food process sector contributes about 32% of the nation’s total food market and therefore, India is being ranked fifth globally in terms of food production, export, consumption, and expected growth in the market (Pingali & Khwaja, 2015, p. 12). However, since 2011 the export of food products has increased steadily and this indicates the contribution and the growth the industry has experienced over the years.
The Indian food industry contributes approximately 14 percent of Gross Domestic product (GDP) from manufacturing,13% of India exports, and about 6% of the total Indian Industry investment. As stated by Pingali and Khwaja (2015, p. 23) Indian food industry is expected to continue experiencing growth it will reach US % 78 billion by 2019. Online food trading in India has also experienced growth and it is expected to experience steady growth in the coming years. In addition, there are several food companies that process and deliver food to houses and offices across major cities and towns in India. The industry is growing and many players are still establishing their bases to provide food services to the Indian market.
Nevertheless, Indian fast food is expected to grow steadily over the next decade and it is expected to be worth USD 27.87 billion by 2020 (Research Market, 2015, p. 12). The high rate of growth of fast food in India is as result of a growing economy, a high number middle income earners, and students who prefer to carry food home. The traditional family dinner preferred by Indians is fading away and this is paving the way and creating a huge market for fast food restaurants. Currently, the number of fast-food restaurants in most urban centres is high and more than restaurants that serve Indian cuisine. Almost in every street, there is a fast food restaurant and it shall continue over the next decades due to globalization.
The globalization and coming of fast food restaurants in India have increased competition and made several local restaurants be tagged or stereotyped as an Indian food store. Globalization changes the way people interact, behave, and also taste. Globalization brought several international people to India and fast food restaurants and therefore, many Indians have been influencing to take more fast food than traditional food. Although fast food restraints like McDonald’s are traditionally known for cheeseburgers with beef. The restaurants came up with a vegetarian menu for local Indians who are strong traditional believers. Though Indian cuisine is still popular in India and widely purchased by locals and some tourists, the younger generation has changed their preferences. The majority of young people and college students purchase more fast food than Indian cuisine and this has made Indian cuisine lose a big market. The change in lifestyle due to globalization has also changed the taste and the kind of food people eat nowadays across major urban centers in India. It is noted that in major urban centers Indian cuisine are no longer preferred by locals and many people purchase fast food due to the fact it can easily be carried away and therefore, many students and middle-income households prefer burger from McDonald
Most importantly, globalization has resulted to change in the cooking techniques of Indian cuisine. Traditionally, Indian cuisine had a lot of spices but currently, the amount of spices has tremendously reduced and the Indian cuisine no longer uses only natural ingredients (Akella, 2017, p. 18). The change in cooking techniques and ingredients has caused a lot of health issues that need to be resolved. Previously, Indian cuisine did not have a lot of calories since Indian cuisine is prepared using animal products and cooking oil which was not traditionally used in Indian cuisine. The traditional recipe has also changed and this was done to make sure that Indian cuisine can compete with the rising fast food culture in India, especially in most urban centers.
Research has shown that Indian cuisine is full of fat and this is because of the way the cuisine is prepared. According to Rajendra and Murigendra (2015, p, 25), the Indian cuisine is prepared by roasting which leaves a lot of fats not dissolved and therefore, it can easily cause heart-related diseases or heart attacks. However, in order to address these problems, the method of cooking Indian cuisine must change. First, the cuisine must be thoroughly cooked to make sure that fats are dissolved so that the chances of people eating raw fats are limited. It will make it unlikely to get a heart attack or other heart-related diseases as a result of eating Indian cuisine (Rajendra & Murigendra, 2015, p. 30). Indian cuisines tend to have a lot of carbohydrates which have a high content of starch and sugar and therefore, Indian cuisine is commonly related to diabetes. In order to address the issue of diabetes, the amount of starch or sugar must be reduced in India cuisine. This will reduce the chances of people getting diabetes. Research has found that Indians are vegetarians who eat high-glycaemic carbohydrates fry food and potatoes more frequently and that is the reason the rate of people suffering from obesity and diabetes is almost equal.
It is, therefore, recommended that the food should be prepared using more species rather than fat which increases the number of calories in the body which can cause heart-related diseases. Even though Indian cuisines are made using grains or cereals it is appropriate to use a variety of grains to avoid chances of having to get diabetes and other diseases that are caused by too much glucose in the body. It is also necessary to use natural sugar such as cinnamon and fruit sugar instead of artificial sugar which has a high chance of causing diabetes. It is important to use less harmful ingredients which do not have any health effects and reduce the use of fat and sugar which can put the health of customers at risk. If this is done the lifestyle of people shall be improved and health-related risks which has been caused by Indian cuisine shall reduce as well (Mukherjea & Anita, 2013, p. 15).
The fast food industry should also address problems caused by these foods and therefore, it is important to make sure that the amount of fat in the food is reduced. Most fast food contains a lot of calories which can be because diabetes is another disease and this is a big health problem that must be addressed. Therefore, it recommended that the amount of fat, calories should be reduced and this can be achieved by using limiting the number of animal products being served to customers and introducing more vegetable-oriented food. For instance, McDonald introduced a burger that is purely for vegetarians to abide by the traditional Indian diet and also to make sure that it reduces the number of calories and fat from the diet of customers. It is important to make sure that traditional or local ingredients are used in the preparation of Indian cuisine so that chances of getting diseases are limited. It has been noted that the cuisine can be unhealthy if not properly cooked; therefore, it should be obligation of ensuring that cuisines are properly cooked and kept or stored where it can be contaminated again to become unhealthy and harmful. The method of food preservation should be changed so that cereals and grains do not grow molds that are harmful to the body.
Indian cuisine is one of the oldest cuisines which have been approved to be good for health if properly prepared. Traditional Indian cuisine had fewer health effects because it was being prepared using natural ingredients which is less risky compared to current ingredients being used to prepare the cuisine. Traditional Indian cuisine had a lot of health benefits to people since it did not have any fat or calories which cause heart attacks and diabetes, therefore, Indian cuisine helps in reducing the number of heart-related diseases in society. It also controls or limits the number of diabetes since it is naturally made with fewer calories. The fact that Indian cuisine is prepared using ginger, cinnamon, mint, and other natural ingredients makes the cuisine the best food which cannot easily cause diseases.
Above all, Indian cuisine should be properly cooked to make sure that all fats are dissolved because if fats are not dissolved then the chances of getting heart-related diseases and diabetes are high. Indian cuisines have low saturated fats, and high fiber, most of them are vegetarian, and therefore, it helps in the prevention of several diseases. The fact that the cuisine is prepared using herbs such as coriander, and ginger makes it a healthy diet.
Indian cuisine can cause diabetes, cancer, and heart attack and this is because globalization has changed the techniques and process of preparing cuisine which does not remove all fats from the food. It is important to note that Indian cuisine causes diseases because of the change of ingredients as a result of globalization and the coming of fast food to India. It can also increase the chances of people getting obese. According to Mukherjee and Anita (2013, p. 20), Indian cuisines are good and they are healthy cuisines when the cuisine is properly cooked and the right ingredients are used in the preparation of the cuisine. However, some Indian cuisine is referred to be harmful because the method of preparing the food has changed and the ingredient as well. The current techniques do not make sure that the food is properly cooked. In order to limit the harmfulness of Indian cuisine, we must go back to the tradition and use similar recipes which were used during the old days, and therefore, al, Indian cuisine shall be healthy and shall never cause any known chronic diseases.
Akella, B. 2017. A journey into the world of Indian cuisine. Indian Cuisine and Globalization ,
Bhoje, G. (2015). Indian Culture And Globalization. International Journal of
Research in Engineering and Social Sciences , 5 (2), 2-41.
Gauchat, S. 2017. An Introduction to Indian Cuisine.
http://www.tasteofindiabtown.com/menu/TOI_webmenu_082410.pdf , 2-34.
Michael, I. 2016. Effects of globalisation: Chronicling the transformation of Indian food.
http://indianexpress.com/article/lifestyle/food-wine/effects-of-globalisation-chronicling-the-transformation-of-indian-food-4947573/ , 2-35.
Mukherjea, A., & Anita, S. 2013. Asian Indian Views on Diet and Health in the United States.
Journal of Science and Nursing , 2-35.
Pingali, P., & Khwaja, Y. 2015. Globalisation of Indian Diets and the Transformation of Food
Supply Systems. https://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/23796/1/wp040005.pdf , 12 (2), 2-37.
Rajendra, S., & Murigendra, S. 2015. Modern Diet and its Impact on Human Health. Journal of
Nutrition & Food Sciences , 12-45.
Research Market. 2015. India Fast Food Market Report 2015 – 2020: Market is expected to grow
at a CAGR of 18%. Research and Market , 2-15.