The article analyzes the formation of forms of social assistance and support for those in need in England during the Middle Ages and up to the 17th century. It is shown how gradually the types of charitable aid were integrated into the activities of church organizations, and then transformed into public forms of assistance regulated by the state. A milestone for the development of institutions of social care in England, according to many researchers, became the Law of the Poor in 1601. This law in the English-language literature is also often referred to as the 43rd law of Elizabeth. This law codified all the previous legislation in the field of assistance to the needy. It became, in fact, the first social code in the world. His only innovation was the legislative consolidation of the responsibility of the family for the support of grandparents, as well as parents who live separately if they needed it
The law of 1601 was the final form of legislative regulation of the situation of the needy and the form of assistance to them. As De Schweinitz (1947) notes, three generations later (after the beginning of charity reforms) in England, where public opinion was concerned about the need to take measures to help the poor during political, religious and economic upheavals and changes, finally a system of government actions to protect needily. The law confirmed responsibility of the parish the local community – for the support of the disadvantaged, who could not be supported by their relatives (Chunn, & Gavigan, 2004).
The Poor’s Law of 1601 did not allow a person to register as needing the generous assistance of family members, a husband or a wife, parents or own children could support him (Charlesworth, 2009). The tax on helping the poor was the main source of funding for the assistance of the disadvantaged. In addition to this tax, and funds could be replenished by private donations and bequests, and through the receipt of fines for the violation of certain statutes (Block, & Somers, 2003).
The law of 1601 for 300 years defined the structure of public assistance to the needy, carried out within the framework of the responsibility of the Government. The bill retained all the features inherent in the early stage of the development of the social support system and contained many repressive measures against the poor yet in today social welfare program it significant influence, it has shown general contempt for disadvantaged people, but at the same time, it placed on public institutions and obligations to help individuals who cannot provide for themselves (Besley, Coate, & Guinnane, 2004).
The English Law of 1601 on assistance to the poor served as a model for social welfare laws in colonial America in the conditions of rapidly developing capitalism. As in England, the authorities of the colonies on the ground – in cities and the districts – were responsible for charity, collecting and distributing taxes and donations to help truly poor. However, beggars, seemingly able to work, Wanderers were admitted to the city conditionally and immediately expelled from the city line when trying to beg for alms. In 1775, in North Carolina, a law was passed on the whipping of beggars before their expulsion, and in other colonies, they wore clothes with a special label (Besley, Coate, & Guinnane, 2004).
The practice of social work in this period 20th century begins to be interpreted as a professional activity, not only the ideology of aid changes, but also the nomination itself. In 1900 Simon Patten proposed to replace the concept of charity with the term social work since this term most adequately reflected the new state of activity in the society of all supporters of charitable forces. It can be noted that it was at the beginning of the century that not only practice of social work in such forms as individual work, work with the case, work with a group, but also the movement for the recognition of social work as a type of professional activity occurs.
Another factor was the discussion on the direction of social reform, headed by J. Addams. The work in the letters, which she directed, required not individual actions, but social change and the development of social legislation. That is why J. Addams and her followers believed that individual actions could not solve the problems of poverty as a whole; it is possible only through preventive work, the reform of society and social legislation. In a sense, the procedures that were offered to John Addams were not scientific; they assumed immersion in the set-up, the opportunity to live together with clients and their example to help change their lives. Although J. Addams was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1931, however, her approaches were not as effective as the approaches of M. Richmond. The other factor was related to the justification of social work as a profession. This discussion arises in society in 1915 thanks to the article of Dr. A. Flexner Is social work a profession?. It justifies that a social worker, acting as patronage, does not have his specific activities since he does not have his method of working with a person. In a polemic with him, Richmond, on the 500 pages of his book, describes specific methods for solving customer problems, proving the right to the existence of a diagnostic approach.
The social work with the group was formalized at the beginning of the 20th century when social contradictions are exacerbated; the industrial revolution and urbanization are complicated by large-scale migration of the population from both farms to US cities and immigrants from Europe. The intersection of the spectrum of activities was related to the work in the field of education in the semen. These programs were aimed at the protection of childhood, the development of kindergartens, and the vocational training of women. Programs of summer recreation for children and school social centers were successfully implemented, where not only educational work was carried out, but also work on socialization in groups.
WIC program is where pregnant or lactating women can receive food, and went to their nearest office. She was not asked about the status of her stay in the US; she was only asked to show ID. The administrator asks women eat, what harmful foods they use, gave a lecture on healthy nutrition. Foods are a significant help for pregnant because there are all the essentials: about 20 gallons of milk, packing eggs, yogurt, fruits and vegetables, beans, whole grain bread and so on. For this program, women can only buy products of certain brands. WIC is a federal aid program in the United States that is provided to pregnant, nursing mothers, infants and children under the age of five whose household income is below the level determined by the state. For example, in all states except Alaska and Hawaii, the income of a family consisting of one person should not exceed $ 1800 per month, of two people – $ 2500 per month. Specific figures can be found here.
All women eligible to participate in the program receive a debit card (EBT), through which they can receive useful products in the network store – milk, fruits and vegetables, eggs, yogurts, breakfast cereals, rice, pasta, etc. Also, the WIC office conducts breastfeeding classes for pregnant women, monitors the physical performance of their wards and tells women about healthy eating. This type of assistance can be claimed by both legal and illegal immigrants with low incomes – in every state this amount is different. You can check whether you can get help from WIC here or at the WIC office in your area of residence in any state of the USA. WIC is just one of many social programs in the US. They apply to virtually all areas of life: food, medicine, education, housing, utilities, etc. Here is the list of the most popular programs:
Tax return: Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and Child Tax Credit programs for tax refunds from the IRS – US tax service – for low-income US residents.
Special Supplementary Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children
The WIC program is for poor women who are waiting for the baby, nursing mothers, babies and children under the age of five. Participants of the program receive free of useful charge products in network shops.
Nutrition for children: A program that provides free school meals or reduced-price meals for children from low-income families.
An educational grant from the state: The program pays up to 5,500 dollars to the poor to help in obtaining secondary specialized and higher education.
Children’s Health Insurance Program: A program for children under the age of 19 whose parents have income higher than what is required to participate in the Medicaid program, but cannot afford to buy good insurance for children. The CHIP program covers all or part of the doctor’s visits, vaccinations, and even dental services.
Medicaid: State program of medical care for the poor. The program can be attended by pregnant women who are not able to pay for the conduct of pregnancy and childbirth, children and other people who need medical services and fit the terms of the program.
An educational program for children A good start: Free educational programs for children from 2 to 5 years Previous good start and Good start – for low-income families, in particular, Native Americans and immigrants. With the help of this program, the child will have access to first-class medical care and healthy nutrition, while the parents of the Good Beginning Center can help in finding a job. Also, parents can take part in child-parent training groups.
In 1948, the US national policy began to be built by the proclaimed course of building a welfare state, this system guaranteed to every citizen the minimum of economic security. In 1949, the strategy changed in the practice of social work with the group. The group work association officially approves the definition of strategy in the group work, which sees: The social worker of the group enables different types of groups to function in such a way that the interaction of groups and their programs contribute to the development of the individual and achieve the goals set.
In the 1940s-1950s, it was possible to observe an increase in the interest of social workers in the techniques of individual work with the case, as the living conditions were stabilized and the parameters of social protection of the population expanded. Despite some economic downturns (in 1948-49, 1953-1954, and 1957-1958), the American community becomes the leader regarding the standard of living of the population. However, the revolution in agriculture and the migration of people from Latin America raise new problems and challenges for society. In 1962, a program was launched to help families with children who have an unemployed parent. A network of programs for vocational training and retraining of the unemployed is being developed. The project, which was implemented, was a national program to support the working poor, where basic needs, taking care of children’s care and medical care, were realized. However, the program failed, the work was not fully provided to the needy, and their wages were low compared to other segments of the population.
A characteristic feature of the modern social policy is decentralization, the presence of a large number of social targeted programs regulated by federal legislation or state legislation. The implementation of the residual model of social policy is implemented in the forms of state insurance and social assistance, which have different sources of financing. Social insurance is formed from the targeted social insurance tax, which is levied on workers and entrepreneurs, and social assistance is provided at the expense of state appropriations.
The system of social work and social security in the 70’s and 90’s during the decade of the seventies is associated with a revolution in the field of human rights. The policy of the welfare state was not considered only from class and economic positions; it was much broader, the interests of ethnic groups, religious orientation, and sexual orientation of subjects were taken into account. The state policy was aimed at assisting various groups of the population, implementing programs for the prevention of diseases, and for obtaining various types of education. However, it was possible to observe how federal expenditures for various federal programs gradually slowed. This has led to the fact that social workers have become less involved in programs such as community development, civil rights, caring for children and the elderly. The volume of federal programs in the field of training of social workers decreased, as the amount of their funding for all states declined. And this led to a decrease in the level of employment of social workers.
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