Academic Master




Fungi/ Funguses (that are singularly called fungus) belong to the clan of eukaryotic organisms. This group comprised many other microorganisms as well; including mushrooms, molds, and yeast.


Evidently, the Fungi’s kingdom is based on five underlying phyla; these phyla are classified according to their approach to reproductions or by considering their molecular data. In this context, the polyphyletic becomes unconnected because this type of fungi conducts the reproduction process in the absence of a sexual cycle and therefore is categorized under the sixth group that is known as “form phylum.” The five primary phyla of fungi are:

  • Chytridiomycota
  • Zygomycota
  • Ascomycota
  • Basidiomycota
  • Deuteromycota

Cellular Structure of Fungi

Among several types of fungi; some feature structure that is somehow analogous to the bacterial plasmid and therefore depicts loop-based DNA. Moreover, fungi cells are also comprised of complicated internal membrane framework along with mitochondria as well Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum. However, disparate to the cells of plants; fungi do not have chlorophyll.

History of Fungi

The microscope developed in the 17th century and its invention brought the studies of microorganisms and pathogens into scope therefore, mycology can be considered a new science. Nevertheless, it was the year 1588, when Giambattista dell Porta first time ever observed the spores of funguses. Furthermore, in 1729, Pier Antonio Micheli presented his research work under the title of “Nova Plantarum genera” and through which he asserts that fungi have a tendency to be induced to expand into similar species under adequate conditions. the ongoing process of research studies leads the 20th century to explore a modern side of mycology and equips it with advancement in the field of molecular biology, genetics as well as in biotechnology, and biochemistry.


The growing reason for complexity and mortality among the patients immunosuppressed is the fungal infections that are invasive in nature. Moreover, the implication of azole prophylaxis to control the species of Candida causes the expansion of invasive Mucorales and aspergillosis. (Castón, 2005) Advanced perilous and risk-filled aspects and various timescales for the inception of such infections are recognized. The awareness regarding alteration in the risk area of fungi’s epidemiology is imperative to develop therapeutic tactics as well as effectual prophylaxis to boost the overall diagnosis of the affected or prospective patient.

Public Health Burden

In the recent eras; the materialization of different new fungus-based pathogens, as well as the emergence of a wide variety of mycotic disorders, were not common in past. However, the resurgence is becoming an augmenting issue in the sector of public health. Such health issues including cryptococcosis and coccidioidomycosis; the interrelated issues regarding such diseases and their precaution and control measures are actively under discussion for over two decades.

Life Cycle of Fungi

Throughout the life cycle of funguses; a sexually active and reproductive organism passes through the haploid stage and enters in the diploid phase, alternatively. Research explicates that the haploid stage executes with the occurrence of nuclear fusion meanwhile the diploid stage commences with the development of the zygote. Through the subject process diploid cell results in the fusion of a pair of sex cells of haploid.

The Immune Response to Fungal Infections

According to research studies and stats; throughout the past two decades, fungi infections is playing an invasive role and are therefore considered a massive peril to the hosts called immunocompromised. (Shoham and Levitz, 2005) Consequently, patients treated with neo-plastic are encountering a greater risk of such infections. Moreover, different fungal infections and diseases such as Candida, Aspergillus, and Cryptococcus as well as other advanced pathogens including dark-walled funguses and fusarium tend to avail the opportunity and attack the host when their defenses become weakened. In this context, the fungal species along with morphotype determine the immune response of a host at the time of the encounter. That is the reason which modifies the magnitude of infections and pivots the immunity impairment aspects in this regard.


College, N. V. (n.d.). Biology II.

Ainsworth, G. C. (2009). Introduction to the history of mycology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Warnock, D. W. (2006). Fungal diseases: an evolving public health challenge*. Medical Mycology, 44(8),
697-705. doi:10.1080/13693780601009493

Castón-Osorio, J. J., Rivero, A., & Torre-Cisneros, J. (2008, November). Epidemiology of invasive fungal

Shoham, S. (2005). The immune response to fungal infections. Retrieved March 12, 2018, from

Watkinson, S. C., Boddy, L., & Money, N. (2016). The Fungi. Saint Louis: Elsevier Science.



Calculate Your Order

Standard price





Pop-up Message