The purpose of this study was to develop and prioritize an online preceptorship training program for the preceptors to enhance support, guidance, and practice when they would thrive in educating their graduate nursing practice students. The project objectives, as well as development, were examined with reference to the study’s related contemporary background information, modules and strategies, identification of the course content, and justification of the study are discussed thoroughly. The preceptorship model, in addition, has been evaluated and recognized as an effective and potential strategy among distinguished preceptors during the training program because this model is distinctively vulnerable to effective challenges in Nursing Practice. Furthermore, this paper evaluates the significance of the online preceptorship training course to preceptors, nursing research, nursing practice students, and patient care. The methodology of the study is also discussed in the step-by-step process; project outcomes and evaluation. The results drawn from this research would serve as prospective guideposts for preceptors for their future research work in Nursing Practice to formulate key outcomes, sustainability, standardization, and development of the preceptorship model to provide quality training to NP students. Lastly, the recommendations are presented for further research work concerning the present study, and then the researched content is briefly summarized for providing an overview to the readers of this study.
A functional healthcare system needs to be effective and efficient to achieve optimal healthcare and improve the quality of care. The healthcare industry is fronting a significant shortage of health workers whose scope is complex to understand. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there is an abrupt global requisite for more than 4.3 million health workers in 57 countries with perilous shortages. Unless these declines are addressed, they will risk the accomplishment of the health-related “Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)” (Simon, 2020). According to new research from the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), the United States risk facing a primary care provider deficit of between 21,400 and 55,200 by 2033. As countries continue to fight the COVID-19 epidemic, the gap between expanding healthcare demands and the supply of doctors to address the healthcare issue has recently grown wider. As the country’s population grows, the problem of having enough primary care providers to service communities becomes progressively more difficult. According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the job outlook for advanced practice registered nurses, including nurse practitioners (NPs) is anticipated to expand by 31% in 2026. For surgeons and physicians, this rate is estimated to be 13%. Thus, the healthcare system requires new graduate nurse practitioners trained through preceptorship to become competent and improve healthcare provision. These precepts necessitate training and preceptorship to enhance their supervision and support for skills development and mentorship. In general, preceptorship allows new grad nurse practitioners to quickly adapt to the ever-changing healthcare systems. Through their guidance, the preceptors become an optimal fit within the healthcare field to guide and support new graduates. This supervision allows new grad NPs to easily integrate into healthcare teams without being a hindrance (Bartlett et al., 2020). Healthcare professionals undergo training programs to become effective and competent preceptors. There are many training programs for new FNPS including preceptorship, residency program, etc. however this paper will focus on developing a Family Nurse Practitioner (FNP) Preceptor Training Program. This educational program is designed to help healthcare providers to precept and support new graduate family nurse practitioners in the workforce via the residency program. This preceptor education program targets healthcare providers as preceptors and role models for residents. The program employs a range of teaching strategies that promote active learning and hands-on experience that result in the acquisition and integration of new knowledge, skills, and attitudes (Association of Surgical Technology, 2021).
NP Residency Program: post-graduate residency training experience for licensed advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) that provides a minimum of one year of structured, intensive education and training in the service delivery setting that support the transition from the academic program and novice practitioner to clinical practice at the advanced level as a nurse practitioner in primary care or specialty areas.
NP resident: An advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) who has graduated from an accredited nursing program, (MSN or DNP) licensed and is participating in a post-graduate training program.
Preceptor: is a skilled, experienced, motivated, and productive provider who has demonstrated clinical excellence and high-quality care with good outcomes. A preceptor serves as a role model and resource to post-graduate trainees.
Justification of the Project
Preceptors are necessary for the advancement of the new graduate FNPs’ skills, attitudes, and knowledge. Preceptorship, mentorship, orientation, and residency are common learning methods that healthcare institutions use to introduce new hires to the organization’s policies and procedures. Once new hires acquire the knowledge and skills needed to function independently, they become competent and confident in providing care. Usually, preceptors are expert and experienced healthcare providers. Their guidance to the new graduate is irreplaceable as it aids their progression and helps them reach their clinical and academic goals. Although preceptors are excellent clinicians they lack effective teaching methods and learning strategies to guide students and trainees (Knott, Mylrea & Glass, 2020). Currently, little is known about the availability of structured training programs for nursing preceptors. A structured preceptor training program allows the preceptors to gain an understanding of their responsibilities and develops the knowledge and skills required to perform their role as preceptors successfully. An excellent preceptor training program reviews the clinical skills and offers opportunities to review the policies and procedures in the related field (Piccinini et al., 2018). It equips the potential preceptors with the ability to develop teaching strategies that they may use to train future nurse practitioners. Apart from this knowledge and skill-based training, the preceptor program is also significant in developing certain attitudes which are required to be a successful preceptor. Practicing self-evaluation helps in the identification of individual leadership styles. For this reason, “Adaptive Training”, is provided to preceptors to develop flexibility toward different personalities and teaching styles. Adaptive Training is an interactive training tool that uses machine learning and mediated resources to meet the unique learning requirement of learners. It is a great educational tool to help preceptors complete their training effectively. Moreover, the adaptive training program is provided to develop flexibility toward different personalities and learning styles as the preceptors will be training others in the future (Dingle & Avant, 2018). The preceptor training program for FNP is important in equipping them with the appropriate knowledge, skills, and behaviors required for this mentorship role.
Purpose of the Project
The purpose of this project is to develop a structured training program that will equip the FNP preceptors with the knowledge and skills that will allow them to train and work effectively with the FNP residents in their field. This training program aims to provide a preceptor with a better understanding of residents’ roles and responsibilities of FNPs as well as assist them in developing the proper skills required for training future FNPs. This preceptor training will develop six modules to provide preceptors with the needed resources for effective and successful residency programs. This will serve as formal training for FNP’s preceptors as it will be focused solely on the outcomes needed by the FNP in this field. After this training, the preceptors will be able to perform their duties skillfully as they will be equipped with relevant skills and knowledge.
The project aims to provide clear guidelines and provide tools to preceptors for training new graduate FNPs. It will help in developing a deep understanding of preceptor responsibilities and utilizing the resources that might aid them to become a better role model, evaluator, educator, and facilitator. There are various criteria and competencies outlined in the literature to become a clinical preceptor. Preceptors must be physicians or advanced practice registered nurses, who are licensed to practice in the state where the preceptorship experience may occur. Moreover, the experience of at least two years as a nurse practitioner or physician is required. This experience includes being proficient in providing patient care following the organization’s policy and procedure as well as national clinical guidelines, fulfilling the assigned duties, and being able to safely operate the equipment. Effective and appropriate use of resources and effective verbal and written communication is also a prerequisite to becoming a preceptor.
Over the years, the number of new nurse practitioners is increasing. As a result, preceptors play a major role in preparing FNPs to become highly skilled in clinical practice. Establishing and attending preceptorship training programs increases preceptors’ preparedness, knowledge, effectiveness, and willingness to play the role of a preceptor (Simon, 2020). So, it is crucial to offer training opportunities for preceptors. The most effective training model for preceptor training is the “One-Minute Preceptor Model”, which aims to provide the preceptors with the capability to take complete advantage of the time given for teaching students or NP residents (Gatewood et al., 2020). Although this teaching method usually takes more than one minute to teach, its effectiveness and efficiency make it the most optimized training model. The paper aims to utilize this method in devising the preceptor training program for family nurse practitioners that are trying to augment their skills towards preceptorship.
The training program will be developed using Barnes’ Learning Theory for adults. The theory focuses on providing a competitive learning environment for adults. Through the use of this theory, a training program can be devised that will be effective in educating adults. This theory informs the readers about the differences in the way a child learns in contrast to adults. Children’s brains are developing so it is easy for them to learn new things, however; in adulthood, people are set in their ways and it becomes difficult to learn new things. With the help of Barnes’ Learning Theory for adults, the program developed will be adaptable for each learner’s needs. Learning through the principles of this theory will allow the students to fully grasp the concepts and increase their knowledge base (TEAL, 2011).
Training nurse practitioners to become preceptors is beneficial as the number of primary care physicians is decreasing. Although many preceptor training programs are provided, there is still a shortage of preceptors so developing an efficient training program and encouraging preceptors to participate in the program is extremely important. For this, the programs need to be centered around one core skill/ NOT SURE IF YOU MEAN ONE NP SPECIALTY SUCH AS FNP so that learners may choose the one that suits them best. To prove that intensive training in a specific field will make the NPS more prepared and capable to become preceptors, the paper is focusing solely on developing a preceptor training program for Family Nurse Practitioners (FNPs). This chapter will review the literature available in regard to this topic and use it to build an effective preceptor training program for FNPs.
Previous Preceptor Training Programs for FNPs
There are many preceptor training programs for pre-licensure nursing students, however; there is not a program that solely focuses on the preceptor training for post-licensure and residency programs, mainly for nurse practitioners (Simamora, 2020). Little is known about the availability of preceptor training for NP residency. To understand the reason for such a gap, a literature review was conducted. The PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and CINAHL databases were searched for publications on preceptor training programs for resident nurse practitioners from 2000 to January 2022. The search was performed with the following keywords: preceptorship, training, NP, FNP, residency program, USA, and advanced practice nurse. The search was conducted in English and was limited to articles published in English in the USA. A manual search of reference lists from identified papers supplemented the electronic search. We were able to identify four preceptor training. Unfortunately, the literature search didn’t retrieve any FNP-specific preceptor training. So, the aim of this project is to develop an FNP preceptor training program.
Even though there is no published FNP Residency training program for preceptors, a literature review revealed only four documents for precepting graduate nursing students while attending nursing school. No literature was available for post-graduate residency programs. Furthermore, the literature review revealed no preceptor training programs based on NP specialties such as FNP, ACNP, or mental health NP. Specialty training programs would help NPs to be ready to provide specialized care to specific patients, which means they are ready to become a part of a specialized department. Preceptor training programs are not as widely available that will allow them to expand their skills and knowledge base. If more specialized training programs are provided then this will allow preceptors to train new FNPs and help them to join the workforce seamlessly (Giddens et al., 2014).
Family Nurse Practitioners (FNPs)
One of the major concerns that have raised the interest in expanding the number of family nurse practitioners in the arena of healthcare in the United States is provider shortages. Other reasons also include the rising costs of insurance premiums and the aging population which cannot have quality healthcare services due to the expansion of insurance costs and providers. Family Nursing Practice in this regard comes into play to provide quality wellness services to a wider range of community setting including the urban and rural areas in particular because the people residing in that settings belong to the population which is more vulnerable and have limited access to quality healthcare (Buerhaus et al., 2015). FNPs work with physicians in providing primary and maintaining medical records of their patients; these records include the history of diseases in the patients’ family, patients’ medical history, medication administered to a patient over the years, etc. It requires a deep knowledge of each patient and all patients have interacted with FNPs throughout their medical life. FNPs are trained to provide care to patients of every age group. They are responsible for keeping patients’ medical history and monitoring their health over the years, which helps in detecting early signs of diseases and help in early detection and prevention. The shortage of primary and family physicians led to an increased workload and the need for FNPs. However, the number of FNPs did not increase to accommodate the growing need in primary care settings. Many new FNP graduates are not prepared to join the workforce and they require residency programs to support their transition from new FNPs to primary care providers. Few residency programs started in the US however most of them lack clinician preceptor training program that provides preceptors with the knowledge and skills needed to effectively train new FNPs to manage and treat patients in primary care (SGU, 2021).
Available Preceptor Training Programs
Even though there is no peer-review published FNP preceptor residency training for preceptors, the literature review revealed only four publications for NP students. The currently available training programs are for nurse practitioners which include Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) Preceptor Development Education, One-Minute Preceptor Training Method, NP ConcentrationPreceptor Guide, and FNP Preceptor Program. However, these programs are more of guidance (sheet cheat), and mainly for NP students attending nursing school. While the aim of this project is to identify and build a preceptor training program based on published literature. Below is an overview of these four programs.
APRN Preceptor Development Education
This program consists of seven training and educational modules that are available online. It focuses on educating preceptors about NP student responsibilities at the clinical site, different learning styles to accommodate students’ needs, clinical teaching, facilitation of critical thinking, effective communication, and cultural awareness. The program provides simulation in which the APRNs apply the skills that they have learned during the training program (Maryland, 2020). However, this program is not tailored to FNP residents’ needs in community clinics.
One-Minute Preceptor Model
Many NPS in the healthcare system are individuals of advanced age, and although these NPs are highly skilled, their career is or will be coming to an end soon due to their age. With most active NPs retiring within 10 years, there is an impending shortage of NPs in the coming years. So it is becoming more and more necessary to establish and develop NP specialty preceptor programs. Preceptors are trained and actively working NPs or physicians that are experienced and skilled as clinicians. They work directly with NP residents, training them in clinical healthcare settings and enabling them to become independent practitioners in a short time. The demand for NPs is increasing due to population growth and shortage in primary care so the demand for preceptors has also increased. Preceptors are busy clinicians with limited time to attend preceptorship training, so preceptor training should be efficient and specific to their learner needs, hint their clinical specialty. To efficiently train preceptors in a limited time, the “One-Minute Preceptor Training Model” is an optimal choice (Miura et al., 2020). However, future studies should examine the effect of a series of brief interventions to see if they effectively improve overall teaching ratings.
Recent research by Ong et al. (2017) indicated that although a little impact was seen on dental surgery, cross-professional understanding of the OMP model may be improved. Similarly, there is a lack of research on the use of OMP models in nursing and advanced nursing practices. Current evidence supports the value of OMP as an effective clinical training model evaluated by students to improve their training through clinical evaluation, feedback, and corrective support. Although research is limited to most healthcare professionals, it is practical to propose the adoption of this learning model as a tool for NP educators. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of the OMP model in NP education (Gatewood et al., 2020).
NP Concentration Preceptor Guide
This preceptor training program aims to integrate FNPs and physicians into the role of preceptors and make them capable of effectively training future NPS. Through this program, the preceptors learn new teaching strategies and skills as well as their responsibilities for training competent FNPs. After attending this program, preceptors will be able to teach residents about different concepts, theories, and their applications. And, they will develop the capability to advance their residents’ skills, knowledge, and proficiency. They can adapt to the different learning styles of their students, which is important for the growth of students. This training program is developed using Andragogy, Malcolm Knowles’ theory of adult learning, which theorizes that adults are independent learners and employ self-direction in their learning process so the best way to educate an adult is to allow them to plan and evaluate their learning progress. In this training program, the preceptor plays the role of a facilitator more than an educator (MSN, 2019).
4-Mennonite College of Nursing-Illinois State University FNP Preceptor Manual
This manual aims to prepare FNP preceptors to explain advanced practice roles and duties to FNP students. It not only trains them to be FNP preceptors but also for nursing system administration. It builds a nursing foundation, then trains FNP students for practice in individual, group, and community settings. This training manual allows FNP students to take on a leadership role and guide other FNPs. It also serves as a foundation for doctoral study if practicing nurses are looking forward to advancing their careers. Similar to other programs, it aims to build an advanced knowledge base, critical thinking, utilization of scientific inquiry, and leadership role (Nursing, 2018).
This preceptor manual has been developed to provide preceptors with information about the graduate program and the clinical courses. It also includes guidelines related to the preceptor role and serves as a policy and procedure for the school of nursing.
Development of Training Program
These training programs provide an extensive base for developing an effective preceptor training program for the FNP residents. The four programs have similar outcomes and can be adopted into the preceptor training of the FNP residency program that the researcher was developing. The most efficient training program is One-Minute Preceptor Training Method, as it aims to achieve the same goals as the other programs but in a short time. This method will make preceptor training more efficient.
Based on the literature review, the authors developed a new FNP residency preceptor training program that is culturally appropriate for the population of LA County. This program was piloted and refined in a cohort of FNP residents who served in different LA County community clinics.
This chapter will cover the methods employed in the development of the preceptor training program for the FNPs. The process will utilize the One-Minute Preceptor Method as the foundation of the program and explain the modules developed for it.
One Minute Preceptor
The five-step One Minute Preceptor method was developed to effectively utilize the limited time available as precepting in a clinical setting can be difficult due to the busy work environment. The schedules of the nurse practitioners may serve as a hurdle for them; making them unable to participate in a formal study session. This approach is extremely structured and is easily adapted to the needs of each learner. The steps defined in this method help the preceptor determine the effective teaching method for each student by asking them a series of questions that can allow a deep insight into the students’ learning behavior. These steps take minimal effort and are as follows:
- Get a commitment
- Probe for supporting evidence
- Teach general rules
- Reinforce what was done right
- Correct mistakes
This model was the basis for developing this preceptor training program.
Model for Improvement
An improvement model was used to guide this quality improvement project. The Associates in Process Improvement (API) methodology is a transition model that tries to develop rapid improvements in procedures and results. It is founded on the plan-do-study-act (PDSA) process and system of profound understanding developed by W. Edwards Deming. The improvement model is made up of two parts: three improvement questions and the PDSA cycle. The following are the three improvement questions.
1. What are we endeavoring to accomplish?
2. How will we know if a change is beneficial?
3. What transformations can we make to enhance the problem?
The first improvement question establishes measurable objectives, such as a schedule, target population, and systems affected. The second question asks users to quantify changes to show that they have occurred. The final question encourages users to select variables that have previously proven to be successful. Generally, the questions elicited responses serve as the cornerstone for improvement activities. The trial-and-learn process is best described as the second component of the model for improvement, the PDSA cycle. It is a never-ending cycle of implementation, evaluation, and improvement. The development of a team of involved stakeholders kicks off the planning stage. Each team member is given a specific job and is expected to report regularly. The actual implementation and extraction of data take place in the action stage.
Compliance to program guidelines
Preserve and revise plan to result measures
reinforcement, and close monitoring are required. .
Introduce preceptors program guide.
Emphasize on FNPs advance education.
Identify program Concerns and preceptor understanding.
Educate and orient to the program
Organize training programs.
Figure 1: Model for Improvement: Adapted from Simon (2020).
Identify the Purpose of Improvement Efforts
Preceptors are crucial in assisting new grad FNPs in adjusting to the training surroundings and culture. It is estimated that 17% of recently qualified FNPs quit their first occupation within the first year (Simon, 2020). Worse, if new FNPs have inadequate understanding during the transition period, they may depart the field. A new FNP is partnered with a preceptor for a length of time during which the preceptor supports, enlightens, and assists the preceptee throughout their clinical orientation to a specific healthcare environment during preceptorship. A new FNP’s job satisfaction, professional growth, confidence, and socializing can all benefit from maintaining the support of the FNPs (Bartlett et al., 2020). Preceptorship programs can also help new grad FNPs remain in the profession longer. Preceptorship programs are often employed to guarantee continued professional growth and promote learning in the clinical environment, to develop competent and independent nurses, as healthcare procedures become more complicated, putting greater demands on the nursing career to sustain high-quality healthcare. Such collaborations give professional consent and permit preceptors to gain the information and skills they need to take charge of the nursing career to uphold high-quality healthcare (Dingle & Avant, 2018). Moreover, these collaborations give professional approval and allow preceptees to gain the information and skills they need to take charge of their nursing course.
Although it is voluntary, a preceptorship program helps newly FNPs professionals get off to the best possible start in their job. The preceptorship program aims to provide several advantages for both employers and preceptees. Preceptorship supplies the organized consent that residents require to successfully incorporate their understanding into day-to-day practice (Bartlett et al., 2020). It permits FNPs to venture on a lifelong expedition of reflection and self-identify their professional development requirements. A satisfactory preceptorship knowledge provides newly FNPs confidence and a sense of belonging, which makes them feel appreciated.
Identify Changes That Result in Improvement
Nursing preceptors are chosen for different reasons, including a passion for teaching, a devotion to the nursing career, and the subjective gratification they obtain from becoming preceptors. Nurse leaders and instructors can usually locate potential preceptors by conducting a staff survey (Dingle & Avant, 2018). The program has ensured that FNP preceptors attain different qualifications including having at least a master’s degree and being nationally certified, reasonable interpersonal skills, cultural sensitivity, clinical competency, zeal for education, delivering recommendations for problem-solving and clinical assessment, constructively presenting favorable and unfavorable feedback, stimulating autonomy, and being devoted about nursing to enhance healthcare provided. Change identification sets the pace for action improvement of purported nursing challenges.
American Association of Nursing Practice (AANPs) and the National Organization of Nursing Practice Faculties (NONPF) have developed certain recommendations and guidelines regarding the preceptorship model and its critical aspects to improve healthcare providers’ retention and patient access. It is an integrative platform that provides guidance to preceptors so that they can train nursing practitioner students to encourage them in providing the best healthcare services in a complex healthcare arena efficiently and confidently. These components and guidelines of preceptorship are incorporated into the preceptor training programs and fellowships to increase the benefits of the preceptorship model in developing the roles and responsibilities of the preceptors through formative and summative evaluation. These guidelines aim to help improve health outcomes among communities by expanding patients’ access to quality wellness services. The manual for the preceptor model was first developed in 2015 by NONPF and later in collaboration with AANPs, the manual was further outlined with evidence-based guidance tools to improve the nursing practice outcomes and experience for the NP students. The tool was well-equipped with the tasks and guidelines concerning the clinical experience through different aspects such as orientation, establishment, evaluation, experience, and completion of the Nursing Practice training programs and fellowships (Pitts et al., 2019). Furthermore, the preceptorship training program in its plan phase as NONPF and AANPs has designed that has the ultimate goal to commit valuable health services in order to support equity, inclusion, and diversity in the patient care within the profession of nursing.
Online PRECEPTOR RESOURCES also were reviewed and incorporated into this training program. Preceptors can utilize these online resources to provide guiding theories and frameworks for role success. The American Association of Nurse Practitioners offers a free online presentation, providing an overview of precepting and strategies for success In addition, the National Organization for Nurse Practitioner Faculties provides a series of free video vignettes to assist preceptors in various scenarios. National NP competencies for student demonstration upon graduation can also be found at this site along with a nationally accepted preceptor manual and resources.
Physicians and nurse practitioners are all part of the preceptor training program. Preceptors were given a pre-test and post-survey to measure their knowledge and attitudes about preceptorship. Then, based on the results of the survey, a preceptor training program was developed based on preceptors’ feedback.
Numerous facilities have a standard preceptorship program; smaller organizations promote and support such collaborations, but they cannot have a formal program. Nevertheless, all FNPs require supportive work surroundings in which their job and responsibilities are clearly defined. They also require training, which could involve live educational events or self-study possibilities. For preceptors, a combined learning method is frequently the most suitable. This requires going to an initial session, which could last a few hours, and then completing online modules. Communication, safety culture, clinical judgment, critical thinking, priority, and constructive feedback are all covered in these sessions.
Preceptors were provided with 6 online modules over 6 weeks. Every week materials were emailed to preceptors.
Description of Modules
Module one included:
- An overview of the precepting process and a review of the 1-minute preceptor model.
- Two videos include names and links
- Article 1: The One Minute Preceptor
- Article 2: Preceptor Expectations
Module two included:
- Preceptor roles and overview of the FNP residency program.
- PowerPoint presentation 1: drill down on the roles of a preceptor, role model, educator, facilitator, and evaluator.
- PowerPoint presentation 2: review the FNP residency goals, objectives, content, and plan for evaluation.
- Article 1: “Skills and Characteristics: Considerations for Preceptor Education” Preceptor
- Article 2: “Role modeling—making the most of a powerful teaching strategy”
Module three included:
- A review of principles of adult education and VARK (visual, auditory, read/write, kinesthetic) styles of learning.
- Two slide decks
- Article 1: Handouts/Articles: Learning Style Questionnaire
- Article 2: TEAL Center Fact Sheet No. 11: Adult Learning Theories 2011
- Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages Summary Chart
- Article 4: Philip O. Ozuah’s COMMENTARY: First, There Was Pedagogy and Then Came Andragogy
- Article 5: Learning Styles Again: VARKing up the right tree!
- Article 6: College of Charleston VARK Learning Styles
Module four included:
- A review of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Education Objectives: Cognitive Domain, developing questions following Bloom’s Taxonomy Revised and the Art of Socratic Questioning
- 7 videos including names and links
- It includes two slide decks and articles
- Article 1: Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy – Question Starters
- Article 2: Questions from the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy
- Article 3: Questions for a Socratic Dialogue
- TEAL Center Fact Sheet No. 12: Deeper Learning through Questioning 2013
Module five included:
- a review of the components of communication, para verbal/paralanguage, nonverbal, proxemics and perception, the principles of facilitation, and precepting the overly confident or overly sensitive student/resident.
- It includes two slide decks and six videos with names and links.
Module six included:
- A review of the differences between assessment and evaluation, the principles of feedback, and evaluation tools used in the FNP residency program.
- It includes seven videos with names and links
- Article 1: Feedback ARCH (graphic)
- Article 2: Yale Center for Teaching and Learning: Formative and Summative Assessment
- Article 3: Sources of Fiction (graphic)
- Article 4: Benner’s Stages of Clinical Competence
- Article 5: Transition to Practice Novice to Expert char
- Evaluation Tools
- Residents’ evaluation of their Clinic
- Residents’ evaluation of their Preceptor
- Assessment Tool for Resident Performance
Preceptor training was focused on interpersonal skills, cultural sensitivity, clinical competency, confidence in teaching, problem-solving and clinical decision recommendation, constructively presenting feedback, and encouraging independence. A post-module quiz was completed by preceptors weekly to measure knowledge and understanding of the materials. If preceptors didn’t do well understanding certain concepts a brief review and highlights were included in the next week’s module.
Even though the average knowledge and care compliance rate improved as a result of the program, there is still space for improvement. To ensure that quality and care are provided, and the shortage of qualified nurse practitioners is addressed, education, reinforcement, and close monitoring are required. The next chapter will cover Act Phase and program outcomes.
The focus of this project is to evaluate a preceptorship model for the preceptors’ practice incorporated through the training program and the end result is the final step of the evaluation of preceptors’ understanding of the content. This manual was an effective clinical education model to review and approve the content validity including effective communication in the arena of nursing, learning styles, and the evaluation process related to the preceptorship so that the preceptors can provide the best guidance and experience in the field after completing the training program. The evaluation of this paper was accomplished through an evaluation of the preceptorship modules and the PowerPoint slides to effectively communicate the roles and responsibilities of a preceptor through designated breaks, learning activities, the colorful graphics. The aim of this designated course was to effectively describe the evaluation process through the post-test questions segment that was included in the course so that preceptors can ask the topic-related queries. The course was developed after assessing and evaluating other possible clinical preceptorship models and frameworks of undergraduate and post-graduate preceptorship programs with post-test questions in order to reflect on what preceptors have learned during their learning activity and what would they convey to their NP students after having this course. This preceptorship training program was to support and instruct modifications and regulations of the Family Nursing Practice program in order to provide preceptors with a theoretical framework so that they can efficiently provide better training services to their new grad NPs. Besides, this project has discussed strategies to provide education, close surveillance, and reinforcement to the preceptors during their training. This project aimed to collaborate preceptorship training programs as an innovative opportunity for the preceptors to provide programs and pieces of training to the new NP graduates after completing preceptorship training.
The preceptorship training program is what multiple healthcare leaders and Nursing experts have called for in order to be a major contributor to transforming the field of healthcare for the better. For this purpose, this study suggests two effective recommendations to increase the freedom and autonomy of the preceptorship so that preceptors could have the best possible extent of their education, practice, and training. Firstly, a voice-over could be added to the preceptorship training manual to encourage preceptors to listen to the course. This simple listening activity would instill knowledge in participants’ minds through their listening capability so that preceptors can have a better understanding of the course content. Secondly, to encourage preceptors in the preceptorship course delivered virtually, an interactive game or activity could be added to the online preceptor training course to reinforce the course content in a more effective way.
In conclusion, the study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of the online preceptor training program in the profession of Nursing under the umbrella of the Healthcare arena. The course was created to bridge the gap between the preceptor mentors and nursing practice students by teaching preceptors effective strategies they could use while training their new graduate nursing practice students. These strategies are used in the field of Nursing Practice through the theoretical framework to benefit preceptors in their nursing education, research, practice, and most importantly in teaching their new graduate NP about patient care. The study was clearly evaluated, supported, and justified by the contemporary literature concerning the preceptorship model and its effectiveness in training preceptors so they could actively thrive in the field of Nursing. The methodology of the study was supported by step-by-step modules to evaluate the outcomes of the online preceptor training program in the process of development. Moreover, recommendations with proper evaluation of the study were presented which could be added to further enhance the outcomes of the preceptorship training program if time permitted such as adding a voiceover to the module to teach the preceptorship model effectively and an interactive game to engage preceptors while virtual learning. It was evaluated and achieved through the preceptorship modules that preceptorship training has strengthened and elevated the roles and responsibilities of all the preceptor participants that were involved in the process. The modules presented in the project also produced effective feedback from the preceptor mentors regarding the weaknesses and strengths of the preceptorship clinical residency model.
Association of Surgical Technology. (2021). PRECEPTOR HANDBOOK. Association of Surgical Technology. https://www.ast.org/uploadedFiles/Main_Site/Content/Educators/Preceptor_Program.pdf
Bartlett, A. D., Um, I. S., Luca, E. J., Krass, I., & Schneider, C. R. (2020). Measuring and assessing the competencies of preceptors in health professions: A systematic scoping review. BMC Medical Education, 20(1), 165. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-020-02082-9
Dingle, S., & Avant. (2018). What makes a successful preceptor training program. Becker’s Hospital Review. https://www.beckershospitalreview.com/hr/what-makes-a-successful-preceptor-training-program.html
Gatewood, E., De Gagne, J. C., Kuo, A. C., & O’Sullivan, P. (2020). The One-Minute Preceptor: Evaluation of a Clinical Teaching Tool Training for Nurse Practitioner Preceptors. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 16(6), 466-469.e1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2020.03.016
Giddens, J. F., Lauzon-Clabo, L., Morton, P. G., Jeffries, P., McQuade-Jones, B., & Ryan, S. (2014). Re-envisioning Clinical Education for Nurse Practitioner Programs: Themes From a National Leaders’ Dialogue. Journal of Professional Nursing, 30(3), 273–278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2014.03.002
Knott, G. J., Mylrea, M. F., & Glass, B. D. (2020). A scoping review of pharmacy preceptor training programs. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 84(10). https://www.ajpe.org/content/84/10/ajpe8039.abstract
Maryland. (2020). Nurse Support Program—-Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN). https://nursesupport.org/nurse-support-program-ii/grants/statewide-initiatives/-advanced-practice-registered-nurse-aprn-/
Miura, M., Daub, K., & Hensley, P. (2020). The one-minute preceptor model for nurse practitioners: A pilot study of a preceptor training program. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 32(12), 809–816. https://doi.org/10.1097/JXX.0000000000000300
MSN. (2019). NP Concentration Preceptor Guide. UTC School of Nursing. https://www.utc.edu/sites/default/files/2020-12/np-preceptor-guide.pdf
Nursing. (2018). FNP Preceptor Manual. Illinois State University; Mennonite College of Nursing. https://nursing.illinoisstate.edu/downloads/FNP%20Preceptor%20Manual.pdf
Piccinini, C. J., Hudlun, N., Branam, K., & Moore, J. M. (2018). The effects of preceptor training on new graduate registered nurse transition experiences and organizational outcomes. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 49(5), 216-220.
SGU. (2021, September 30). Is There a Shortage of Primary Care Physicians? Evaluating the Claims. Medical Blog | St. George’s University | The SGU Pulse. https://www.sgu.edu/blog/medical/is-there-a-shortage-of-primary-care-physicians/
Simon, S. (2020). Nurse Practitioner Preceptor Training Using the One Minute Preceptor Model. https://kb.osu.edu/handle/1811/91477
Simamora, R. H. (2020). Learning of patient identification in patient safety programs through clinical preceptor models. Medico-Legal Update, 20(3), 419-422. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Haitham-Abdulhadi-2/publication/350124731_Estimation_of_Some_Genetic_and_Physiological_Variables_of_Iraqi_Desert_Snake_Cerastes_gasperettii_469/links/6052711a458515e834518b9e/Estimation-of-Some-Genetic-and-Physiological-Variables-of-Iraqi-Desert-Snake-Cerastes-gasperettii-469.pdf#page=432
TEAL. (2011). Adult Learning Theories. TEAL Center Fact Sheet No. 11: Adult Learning Theories. https://lincs.ed.gov/sites/default/files/11_%20TEAL_Adult_Learning_Theory.pdf
Buerhaus, P. I., DesRoches, C. M., Dittus, R., &Donelan, K. (2015). Practice characteristics of primary care nurse practitioners and physicians. Nursing Outlook, 63(2), 144–153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2014.08.008
Pitts, C., Padden, D., Knestrick, J., & Bigley, M. B. (2019). A checklist for faculty and preceptor to enhance the nurse practitioner student clinical experience. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 31(10), 591–597. https://doi.org/10.1097/JXX.0000000000000310