There were many technological advancements for the various societies such as Chinese between 1000 and 1300. The advancement was to help them deal with the isolation issues. The Chinese invented the needle compass that was essential during the sea navigation. The intervention facilitated the long-distance trade through the use of the sea routes. Moreover, the isolated farmers during 1000 developed a ship with a high carrying capacity to transport surplus cotton, linen, and rice vie the sea. North Africa was geographically isolated during 1000 period. The isolation suppressed the interregional trade. Therefore, the intraregional trade commenced during that period among the societies in Sub-Sahara Africa. The separation led to the inventions of the societies. Also, new trade routes emerged during that period. However, isolation deterred communities from accessing the unique cultures and wealth. Greenland was economically isolated as a result of the decline in the demand for ivory. The foreign merchants during that period stopped visiting the Greenland which also contributed to their isolation. Maintenance of their culture and life was difficult they had to survive on one diet. Also, the engage in the warfare with the surrounding community. The Norse colony disappeared because of monotonous life and diet. There is a high similarity between the Mesoamerican cultures with that of Cahokia. For instance, the settlement of the Mesoamerica is the same as that of Cahokia (Pauketat, T. R., & Emerson, T. E, 2000). The elaborated burials is another similarity between Cahokia and Mesoamerica. The Mesoamericans were involved in Anasazi trade. The trade involved pottery, ornaments, and macaws feathers. The North America agriculture techniques, crops, and religious customs are based on Mesoamerican. Europe and Japan adapted various technologies that will enable them to engage in long-distance trade. For example, Japan used the western mannerism and encouraged their citizen to follow suit.
The first crusade was initiated in 1096 to 1099 by the Pope Urban II. The crusade aimed to create a common enemy for the Europe nobles and the Christian rulers. The common enemy (Muslims) was the rulers of the Holy Land. Europe was more affected by the crusade than any country (McGonigle, T. C., & Quigley, J. F, 1988). The demand of the Asian products among the Europeans increases as a result of the Crusade. Egypt and the Syria sultan called Saladin emerged due to the Crusade hero. The Christian was freed in Jerusalem in 1187. The psychological impacts are the major effect of the Crusade to the Islamic world. The Islam were worried about the rapid invasion of the Mongol Empire. The major concern was on the suspension of the Baghdad. However, during the Ayn Jalut Battle, the Mamluks defeated the Mongols (Amitai-Preiss, 2014). Christianity spread faster in Spain despite the obstacles because they were treated better than expected. The origin of the Muslims to West Africa is ascribed to commerce and trade between the Mediterranean and West Africa.
Assignment: Part 2
Genghis Khan Empire was the largest in the world history. The empire ruled Indochina, Mongolia, Middle East, Iran, Russia, China, and Japan. The effort and brilliance of the Genghis Khan Grandson and sons contributed to the expansion of the empire (Craughwell, 2010). The spread of Mongolia Empire was at a high rate between 1206 and 1368. The expansion of the Mongol empire has both negative and positive impact. The Mongol empire confiscated livestock and crops during the invasion of the empire into the countries of Europe. Also, the majority of people were murder when they tried to resist. The lastly, the bubonic plague spread to Eastern Europe and Central Asia as a result of the restoration of the new trading routes by the Mongol empire. On the positive side, the new trade routes opened. For instance, silk route that connects Europe and China led to the exchange of wealth as well as cultures. The explorer, missionaries, and monks were allowed by Pax Mongolica to use the road. The most important legacy left behind by Genghis was to make a landlocked country powerful hence regarded as a hero. However, the way he enslaved individuals was one of the negative legacies. Genghis was the only non-Russia leader that controlled them during winter. The incompetence of leadership and conflict between the generals and princess weakens the Mongol powers. The tactics and weapon used by Mongolia were being adopted by the rivals which further weakened the empire. North India power balance changed due to Mongol invasion (Roux, J.-P., & Ballas, T, 2003). The political structure of South Asia and Japan shifted to a social hierarchy that is closed as a result of the Mongol expansion.
The encroachment of the deadly plague during the medieval time is attributed to the change in the climate pattern. The infected flea acted as a vector for the disease. The causative agent was Yersinia pestis. Europe was severely affected by the Black Death. Approximately a third of the people in Europe lost their life from the Black Death. However, the United States gained from the plague since mercantilism emerged during that period. It is a form of capitalism where majority one party wins more from trade. England established 13 colonies for American that perpetuated capitalism. The effect of the plague on the Jew was minimal compared to other individuals. Therefore, European blamed them. Europe thought the Jew had intentionally poisoned wells with the disease. Generations during the medieval time dealt with the plague in different ways. Some of the contemporaries turned to religion for protection while others specifically Christians killed Jews since they thought were the one responsible for the epidemic. The social structure of Europe changed due to the Black Death calamity. The Catholic Church was adversely affected during this period. The population of China and the Middle East reduced drastically reduced drastically.
Medieval science: Europe did not have best doctors and scientist during the medieval period. The south and east of the Islamic Empire was the hub for the professions during the middle ages. The medicine and science knowledge in Europe was outsourced from Islamic doctors and scientist. People considered scientific observation as an integral aspect in medieval Europe. Both astronomy and plants were studied (Byrne, 2004). The European acquired the knowledge of the astrolabe the Spain astronomers. Moreover, understand the science of the compass and the air balloon from Mongolia. Mongolia gained the knowledge from the Chinese. Alchemy is the root of today’s chemistry learned in Europe. The primary research among the alchemist is to obtain gold from lead and find out the mechanism will make a person live forever. The same concept is used to research the agents that reduce aging (Janin, 2005).
Medieval art: The medieval art is a mixture of the Islamic, German, and Roman art that occurred in Europe during the Middle Ages. The Gothic art, Romanesque, and Early Medieval are the division of the medieval art according to the art historian. South Europe experience the Gothic and Romanesque earlier than southern Europe. The Roman churches styles were based on the Early Medieval art. Today Catholic churches in Europe use the same artistic future.
Amitai-Preiss, R. (2014). Mongols and Mamluks: : The Mamluk-Īlkhānid war. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Byrne, J. P. (2004). The black death. Westport. Conn: Greenwood Press.
Craughwell, T. J. (2010). The rise and fall of the second largest empire in history: How Genghis Khan’s Mongols almost conquered the world. Beverly, Mass: Fair Winds Press.
Janin, H. (2005). The pursuit of learning in the Islamic world, 610-2003. Jefferson, N.C.(Estados Unidos). London: McFarland & Company.
McGonigle, T. C., & Quigley, J. F. (1988). A history of the Christian tradition. New York: Paulist Press.
Pauketat, T. R., & Emerson, T. E. (2000). Cahokia: Domination and ideology in the Mississippian world. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Roux, J.-P., & Ballas, T. (2003). Genghis Khan and the Mongol empire. New York: Harry N. Abrams.