Ecotourism is basically an organized activity related to marine life; different policies and laws govern this activity. The crux of ecotourism is to promote marine life and appreciate tourism from all around the world to know about marine life. Habitation of marine life and their protection is questioned when activities like tourism are held to promote ecotourism. But there is a need for proper legislation on a government level, and policy maker must take the facts and threats into account while making policies and laws for ecotourism. The fact is that almost 71% of the earth is covered by water. Thus, marine life and ecotourism are the most concerning questions.
Political barriers are the main challenges faced by every country in forming rules and policies to execute their task. A visionary political will can promote the task to greater success. The success behind the western ecotourism sector is its policies and proper legislation. That is why most of the studies and research were made by western countries on ecotourism. Until now such a remarkable contribution done by developing countries like the Middle East countries. This shows their ignorance toward the issue of marine life. But we cannot neglect the importance of government intervention and policymakers. The main role played by the government is to legislate proper laws to execute tasks related to ecotourism. Western countries are far beyond in their consideration of ecotourism. Most of the research has been conducted on visitors to zoos and aquarium is conducted in the USA (Davey,2006, Deirking, Burtnyk, Buchner and Falk,2002; Schram, 2011).
Despite the fact that the Middle East is the best spot for ecotourism, there has not been much research and work which can promote ecotourism and provide a safe side. Golf countries and countries along the coastal line of the Indian oceans are far behind western countries in protecting ecotourism and marine life. Their failure may lie in their policy-making procedure and maybe lack of concentration on marine life. The report shows that almost US$2.4 of revenue is generated annually through activities of ecotourism (Dawn news). The Middle East can be a good spot for Eco tourists but, since they have a considerable amount of coastal line, nice sunny spots, and open beaches. The matter can be encountered through political approaches. Formulation of policies will be the defining factor of ecotourism luck. So far we have discussed a general idea about ecotourism and its sporting allies like the western world is dominating in this particular field, whether it be research or revenue generation.
USA and Ecotourism
The United States of America is investing a considerable amount of budget in ecotourism. As per capita income is increasing and people are moving toward a better quality of life, their demand for tourism and related activities increases. They spend a relatively large amount of their budget on ecotourism. As their leisure activities increase and their will to roam around the world is more. A study shows that almost 900 million tourists from the United States of America are annually registered for tourist activities. These activities include visiting to sea areas, forests, recreation sites, historical places, and other spots. The reason behind this huge amount of flux in the field of tourism from the USA is their economic well-being. They own more income hence their leisure activities increase.
All tourism-related activities are undertaken by private and public institutions. Funds are generated by different organizations to execute the tasks. Institutions are settled to protect the tourism sector, which includes the protection of marine life, providing convince for tourists, and making proper policies to guard against ecotourism. These institutions are mostly privately owned and locally managed. However, the government of the United States has numerous water and land management agencies with the aim to protect and promote ecotourism and land management. These organizations are (NPS), (FWS), (BLM), and (NFMS). A number of other ecotourism places are managed and protected by government and local agencies (Study Submitted to the World Ecotourism Summit by U.S. Department of State May 2002).
Arrangement of policies and management
Management and planning of any task are challenging but under proper guidance and monitoring of experts can lead the task toward a successful ending. So far the United States of America has a proper setup on the local level as well as on the government level. The task of planning and management is carried out by locally settled organizations and sometimes government intervenes in mega projects through its policies and funds. Political will is determining factor in task execution and planning procedure. Planning and management of ecotourism mainly consist of, fundraising, revenue generation, data collection, data processing, providing guidelines to tourists, taking care of tourism sides, and much more. In these all undertaking activities, community involvement makes ensures minimizing the conflict which may arise between protection interest and tourism development interest. The proposed tourism operation was analyzed by federal and government agencies to evaluate the socio-economic benefit of the tasks. After making sure that the following task is beneficial for the stakeholders, implementation is confirmed. Land management training center in the country provides specialized courses for their employees to communicate along with the community on the matter. The most successful ecotourism operation depends upon the overall infrastructural development, program management, and maintaining the level of tourism. Level management can protect the resource from being overused and degraded. While infrastructural enhancement can value added to the operation. The organization of programs for tourists may give awareness to them, which in return increases the flux of tourists. In this way, revenue generation increases.
This procedure is pivoted to the political role of the country. An open and friendly foreign policy encourages ecotourism while strictness in policies may impede ecotourism. Some Middle East country faces many challenges in promoting ecotourism because of the orientation of their policies. Sometimes terror threats and religious sanctions stand in the way of ecotourism. Whatever the challenges are the solution lies in the erection of strong policies-bearing institutions.
Ecotourism activities in the United States of America are regulated at various levels, from the local level to the government level all organizations are subject to their own status, conditions, possibilities, and challenges. The land is Ecotourism activities in the U.S.A is regulated by the government of the United States, while at the local level, tourist activities are arranged by the public on their own accord; in such cases, different NGOs and private organizations involved. The regulatory authorities have the main objective of stipulating a code of conduct, carrying out environmental protection measures, guiding provisions, and motor boat licensing. Penalties are also conducted when improper or mismanagement occurs while executing tasks or touring the sides. These regulatory bodies have full authority over natural resources. They can legislate laws and form policies that can be beneficial for the users. Besides these all responsibilities, regulatory authorities watch out for any environmental impacts case by ecotourism operations. Environmental influences like noise, public terrific, and collecting of plants and animal raw materials can be minimized by the ordinance. Otherwise, disturbance in the ecosystem may occur. Like birds can get distracted from their nests, other habitats may be disturbed by tourist activities. The two pioneer agencies of the ordinance with broad zoning authority over land management and ecotourism uses are in New York and in New Jersey. These ordinance-bearing institutions have a pivotal role in guarding ecotourism-related activities. Besides polices making they focused on the operation of policies, their pros and cons, and their effects on other factors. A strong organization reflects its functionality via executing its task under the prescribed laws. It is crystal clear that a political role is mandatory in the formulation of such institutions and policies.
Controlling and future outlooks
Maintaining efficiency and utilizing natural resources is the main objective of the government of the United States. Any activity which prolonged for an extended time is known as efficiently undertaken. In this very concept future consumption is retained. This procedure involves a proper check and balance over the activities and operations ecotourism executes. Keeping the future perspective in mind the ordinance and regulatory authorities acquired certain policies and tasks which preserve the natural resources as well as provide a better ecotourism opportunity for tourists coming from all over the world. The activities of ecotourism are monitored by benefit-cost analysis on an annual basis. By knowing the flux of tourists they can formulate their policies, that how to maintain the revenue and protect natural resources. A proper analysis of profit goes to stakeholders and revenue generated by the agencies can be led to formulating actions and tasks that can keep a balance and maintain efficiency.
The US federal agencies have been assessing external recreational activities on a regular basis. One of such agency National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration analyzed external recreational wants/needs and environmental requirements for civilians. A survey in the past estimated 209M visitors to national forests of the country and 14.3M visitors to wilderness areas within the country.
The industry of ecotourism in the United States of America indicates that a growing number of tourists visit recreational places and tourist sides. Which in turn causes a severe threat to the ecosystem. This problem can be managed and retaliate through proper education of tourism sides’ usage and taking care of the places where tourist visits. Marine life is getting disturbed by boating and unnecessary roaming around the spots. This can disturb their mating schedule, and excessive garbage thrown to the pounds may cause the death of fish.