The methodologies and the practices involved in the peaceful ending of the confrontation between two opposing parties is attributed to the conflict resolution. Individuals having certain conflicting issues actively participate in the committed communications and negotiations to resolve the concerned problem. The sharing of the information of one group, which holds specific beliefs to the others in a positive way help the parties to understand and reach on the discussion table. Different kinds of conflicts mostly appear among the individuals and groups. For example, the cognitive conflicts are the issues that require understanding, attitudes, and the beliefs of the person. In the same way, conflicts related to the emotional, behavioral resolution involve the actors to use mediation and peace building conversation. The cross-cultural conflicts and resolutions are the prevailing debate among the scientist and scholars of the peace and Conflict Management.
The occurrence of the conflicts among the people residing across the boundaries are defined as the cross-cultural conflicts. The dispute can be there inside the same society of individuals. The language, identities and the economic characteristics of person also contributed to the injection of certain disputes among the members of society. Complexities in the society lead to the creation of grouping. Every small or large group have the ideas for the particular culture and the sophistication in composed of certain subcultures. The conflicts of the culture rise at various level, which differentiate the level along with the social grouping. Across the boundaries, culture separate the norms and the identities of one culture over the other like the culture of Japanese, which separate it from the American society.
Understanding of Multi-Dimensional Nature of the conflict
The delegations of the one nation for the negotiation at the global level and forums are often composed of various diplomats, specialist and the representative of the specific fields. There is a lot of difference in negotiating at the state level dealing and those that are negotiating on global issues and problems (Autesserre, 2014). The style of dealing at the national level will influence over the international discussion due to the specification of the particular culture. The engineers and the scientist can have easy communication across the table than those that are on the national level. Here are the professional subcultures that influence the common education of the scientist and the engineers. The common thing in the multicultural relations is the conflict, which reveals the differences among these cultures. Understanding, perception and the communication competence play an important role in the composition of cross-cultural conflicts.
The time of the conflicts of post-cold war was divided into different civilisations. According to the Samuel Huntington who has to explain and conceptualize the situation as the primary differences of those nations destined as a way of clash among different cultures. However, the gaps in the cultural norms are not the primary factors that cause conflict, but it a reflecting lens by which the conflicting perceptions and the ideas are formed. The framework of the occurrence of the conflicts are composed by the particular context, which is related to the basics of respective culture.
The framing of cultural context is done through the identification and the competition of resources, and objects related to the dispute. The rules for the contest as for how, why and in what ways the competition should be among the people of different cultures is associated with the contextual background of the particular society (Beswick, 2014). The culture also provides the individual to act and think of others according to their own way of cognition, symbols and the behaviours which shows how the context influence the person residing in particular community. Researchers and the scholars have the opinion that occurrence of the miscommunication among negotiating diplomats and the specialist might be there. They must not stop their cross-cultural dealings but try to continue with the hope of effective results.
The example of the cross-cultural conversation can be understood through the case study of Egyptian and the Israeli conflict. The use of force of Israel against the Egypt and preparation of the deterrence during the time of nineteen fifty to sixty was, in reality, fail to apply deterrence for the safety from the attack. Studies regarding the analysis of the culture have revealed that deep distances were there between both states in tackling violence, and vendetta. The excessive application of force by the Israeli forces have broken down the understanding of Egypt regarding the formal way of retribution. Contrary to this, Israelis have the same problem of misunderstanding of Egyptian cultural conventions.
The deterrence of Israel was for the punishment to the opposite state so that it may comply towards the state of Israel. However, Egypt has a different stance to tackle the situation. The containment of the cultural ideas like disproportionate the vengeance on their opponent state has negatively impact on their reputation and honour. The Egyptian loss their honour is such an environment where cultural respect is very important (Hirsh, 2016). The operations of Israel have the negative and opposite reaction and allow Egypt to enhance support for incursion in Israel. The case represented the deep cultural misunderstanding, which provides intense conflict between the two states. The result of cultural distances and conflict spiral have lost the lives of many people on both sides.
Complex Dynamics of Conflict Resolution
Every individual has multiple views of the conflict. Some are of the view that it is the essential component, it is natural or the problem is not the issue but the problem is the managing of the conflict. The reality is otherwise which reveals that conflict are primarily due to the actions and decisions we take in different circumstances (Mac 2016). Parents choose to tell their children that arguments are not conflict but the happy conversation of the ideas. The institutions also have the opinion not to tell their facilitators about the conflict that are present in the internal atmosphere. In any way, we are in certain kind of conflict but we have no ability to admit and to realize the circumstances to which we consider hopeless situations.
The dynamics of the conflict are numerous and these are rooted in many ways. The number of theories has tried to explain and define the conflict. The core forces that drive the phenomena of conflict are the instinct human values. It also includes the competition for the authority and power. The excessive needs to grab resources are particularly the problem that enhances the conflict. The situations and the structures of the communities in a competitive lead to the conflict (Miall, 2004). In the same way, the unbearable struggle among different classes causes conflict. For those people that are contended with the conflict, theories will not serve their purpose. The elimination of the conflict through the investigative research on the theories of conflict along with the positive and practical tools is appropriate and reliable.
The imperfect communication is one of the major drivers of creating conflict among the humans. The incompatibility of the interest between the parties made it impossible to solve the issue. Emotions. Culture, gender and the class of individual are usual constraints in better communication. The feelings and emotions of the person overwhelm the rational abilities and create lust for the best meeting of one’s needs (Thomas, 1992). However, there are some kinds of emotions, which prevent conflict. The real expression of feeling regarding sadness of others can effectively decrease the level of conflict. Similarly, those values we contain as our beliefs also provide ways for conflict. All about our life, good and bad are design by the factor of values given to us by our culture. By sharing the values, we can escalate the conflicts.
Other than values, there are structures that force the conflict between people and societies. Decision-making, communication processes, and the cultural physical setting are also the factor that drives the conflict. Human needs and the interests are primary forces that hamper the issues and wider the confrontations between people. Forces of the conflict do not always mean that they are only meant for creating problems but they can be applied as the constructive thoughts to end the conflicts among the parties.
Trends and Development in Conflict Resolution
The development in ending the conflicts are the major task by which states and the parties tried to be peaceful and adjust the others to live without any confrontation. Regardless of human rights and the justices, the success story of past forty years has revealed that massive development are there in the elimination of confrontations. Parties are now using arbitrations in ending their commercial disputes (Wallensteen, 2015). The actions of the government, academic councils, corporate struggle and the individual leadership skills have placed high impact on the resolution of conflicts. Personal abilities are the primary needs of every individual to solve the growing issues among the people.
To end the conflicts countries including the Australian state have passed bills like fair work acts, which are increasingly reducing the conflicts of people at the workplace. There are a number of bodies working to prevent the rising of the conflicts in their cultures and societies. The cross-cultural problems between Israel and the Egypt as we have studied the case are due to the misunderstanding, which must not be there in other cases (Wilkes 2015). A groundwork and research are essential to end the conflict and increase interaction and participation between people and members of the society.
Concluding the details on the cross-cultural conflict, an important assumption is that conflicts can be productive. People generally perceive it as negative. The case study of Israel and Egypt conflicts provides that misunderstanding is also one of the major factors that could lead to the loss of dozens of people. The best way to deal with the conflict is to receive it as positive and investigate the context and related issues, which can be beneficial for the parties. In the same way, communication, beliefs and the values held by an individual are the primary motives in driving the conflicts.
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Beswick, D. and Jackson, P., 2014. Conflict, security and development: An introduction. Routledge.
Hirsh, J.B. and Kang, S.K., 2016. Mechanisms of identity conflict: Uncertainty, anxiety, and the behavioural inhibition system. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 20(3), pp.223-244.
Mac Ginty, R. and Williams, A., 2016. Conflict and development. Routledge.
Miall, H., 2004. Conflict transformation: A multi-dimensional task. In Transforming ethnopolitical conflict (pp. 67-89). VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden.
Thomas, K.W., 1992. Conflict and conflict management: Reflections and update. Journal of organizational behavior, 13(3), pp.265-274.
Wallensteen, P., 2015. Understanding conflict resolution. Sage.
Wilkes-Allemann, J., Pütz, M., Hirschi, C. and Fischer, C., 2015. Conflict situations and response strategies in urban forests in Switzerland. Scandinavian journal of forest research, 30(3), pp.204-216.