Academic Master


Conflict Management And Resolution


The methodologies and the practices involved in the peaceful ending of the confrontation between two opposing parties are attributed to the conflict resolution. Individuals having certain conflicting issues actively participate in committed communications and negotiations to resolve the problem. The sharing of information with one group, which holds specific beliefs to the others in a positive way, helps the parties to understand and reach the discussion table. Different kinds of conflicts mostly appear among individuals and groups. For example, the cognitive conflicts are the issues that require understanding, attitudes, and the beliefs of the person. In the same way, conflicts related to emotional and behavioral resolution involve the actors in mediation and peace-building conversations. Cross-cultural conflicts and resolutions are the prevailing debate among scientists and scholars of peace and Conflict Management.


The occurrence of conflicts among the people residing across the boundaries is defined as cross-cultural conflicts. The dispute can be there inside the same society of individuals. The language, identities, and economic characteristics of the person also contribute to the injection of certain disputes among the members of society. Complexities in society lead to the creation of grouping. Every small or large group has ideas for a particular culture and sophistication composed of certain subcultures. The conflicts of the culture rise at various levels, which differentiates the level along with the social grouping. Across the boundaries, culture separates the norms and the identities of one culture over the other, like the culture of Japan, which separates it from American society.

Understanding of the Multi-Dimensional Nature of the Conflict

The delegations of one nation for the negotiation at the global level and forums are often composed of various diplomats, specialists, and representatives of specific fields. There is a lot of difference between negotiating at the state level and those that are negotiating on global issues and problems (Autesserre, 2014). The style of dealing at the national level will influence over the international discussion due to the specification of the particular culture. Engineers and scientists can communicate more easily across the table than those on the national level. Here are the professional subcultures that influence the common education of scientists and engineers. The common thing in multicultural relations is conflict, which reveals the differences among these cultures. Understanding, perception, and communication competence play an important role in the composition of cross-cultural conflicts.

The conflicts of the post-Cold War period were divided into different civilizations. According to Samuel Huntington, he has to explain and conceptualize the situation as the primary differences of those nations destined as a way of clash among different cultures. However, the gaps in the cultural norms are not the primary factors that cause conflict; rather, they are a reflecting lens by which conflicting perceptions and ideas are formed. The framework for the occurrence of conflicts is composed of a particular context, which is related to the basics of the respective culture.

The framing of cultural context is done through the identification and the competition of resources and objects related to the dispute. The rules for the contest as for how, why, and in what ways the competition should be among people of different cultures are associated with the contextual background of the particular society (Beswick, 2014). Culture also allows individuals to act and think of others according to their own way of cognition, symbols, and behaviors, which shows how context influences the person residing in a particular community. Researchers and scholars believe that miscommunication among negotiating diplomats and specialists might occur. They must not stop their cross-cultural dealings but try to continue with the hope of effective results.

The example of the cross-cultural conversation can be understood through the case study of the Egyptian and Israeli conflict. The use of force by Israel against Egypt and preparation of the deterrence during the time of nineteen fifty to sixty was, in reality, failed to apply deterrence for the safety from the attack. Studies regarding the analysis of the culture have revealed that deep distances existed between both states in terms of tackling violence and vendetta. The excessive application of force by the Israeli forces has broken down the understanding of Egypt regarding the formal way of retribution. Contrary to this, Israelis have the same problem of misunderstanding Egyptian cultural conventions.

The deterrence of Israel was for the punishment to the opposite state so that it may comply with the state of Israel. However, Egypt has a different stance on tackling the situation. The containment of cultural ideas like disproportionate vengeance on their opponent state has a negative impact on their reputation and honor. The Egyptians lose their honor in such an environment where cultural respect is very important (Hirsh, 2016). The operations of Israel had a negative and opposite reaction and allowed Egypt to enhance support for an incursion in Israel. The case represented the deep cultural misunderstanding, which provided intense conflict between the two states. The result of cultural distances and conflict spirals is the loss of the lives of many people on both sides.

Complex Dynamics of Conflict Resolution

Every individual has multiple views of the conflict. Some are of the view that it is the essential component, it is natural, or the problem is not the issue, but the problem is the managing of the conflict. The reality is otherwise, which reveals that conflict is primarily due to the actions and decisions we take in different circumstances (Mac 2016). Parents choose to tell their children that arguments are not a conflict but a happy conversation of ideas. The institutions also have the opinion not to tell their facilitators about the conflicts that are present in the internal atmosphere. In any way, we are in a certain kind of conflict, but we have no ability to admit and to realize the circumstances to which we consider hopeless situations.

The dynamics of the conflict are numerous and rooted in many ways. A number of theories have tried to explain and define the conflict. The core forces that drive the phenomena of conflict are the instinct of human values. It also includes the competition for authority and power. The excessive need to grab resources is particularly the problem that enhances the conflict. The situations and the structures of the communities in a competitive lead to conflict (Miall, 2004). In the same way, the unbearable struggle among different classes causes conflict. For those people who are contended with the conflict, theories will not serve their purpose. The elimination of conflict through investigative research on the theories of conflict, along with the positive and practical tools, is appropriate and reliable.

Imperfect communication is one of the major drivers of conflict among humans. The incompatibility of the interests between the parties made it impossible to solve the issue. Emotions. Culture, gender, and individual class are usual constraints for better communication. The feelings and emotions of the person overwhelm the rational abilities and create lust for the best meeting of one’s needs (Thomas, 1992). However, there are some kinds of emotions that prevent conflict. The real expression of feelings regarding the sadness of others can effectively decrease the level of conflict. Similarly, those values we contain as our beliefs also provide ways for conflict. All about our lives, good and bad, are designed by the factor of values given to us by our culture. By sharing the values, we can escalate the conflicts.

Other than values, there are structures that force the conflict between people and societies. Decision-making, communication processes, and the cultural and physical setting are also factors that drive conflict. Human needs and interests are primary forces that hamper the issues and widen the confrontations between people. Forces of conflict do not always mean that they are only meant to create problems, but they can be applied as constructive thoughts to end the conflicts among the parties.

Trends and Development in Conflict Resolution

The development of ending the conflicts is the major task by which states and the parties try to be peaceful and adjust to the situation so that the others can live without any confrontation. Regardless of human rights and justice, the success story of the past forty years has revealed that massive developments are needed to eliminate confrontations. Parties are now using arbitrations to end their commercial disputes (Wallensteen, 2015). The actions of the government, academic councils, corporate struggle, and individual leadership skills have had a high impact on the resolution of conflicts. Personal abilities are the primary needs of every individual to solve the growing issues among the people.

To end the conflicts, countries, including the Australian state, have passed bills like the Fair Work Acts, which are increasingly reducing the conflicts of people at the workplace. There are a number of bodies working to prevent the rising of conflicts in their cultures and societies. The cross-cultural problems between Israel and Egypt, as we have studied the case, are due to misunderstanding, which must not be present in other cases (Wilkes 2015). Groundwork and research are essential to end the conflict and increase interaction and participation between people and members of society.


Concluding the details on the cross-cultural conflict, an important assumption is that conflicts can be productive. People generally perceive it as negative. The case study of the Israel and Egypt conflicts provides that misunderstanding is also one of the major factors that could lead to the loss of dozens of people. The best way to deal with the conflict is to receive it as positive and investigate the context and related issues, which can be beneficial for the parties. In the same way, communication, beliefs, and the values held by an individual are the primary motives that drive conflicts.


Autesserre, S., 2014. Peaceland: conflict resolution and the everyday politics of international intervention. Cambridge University Press.

Beswick, D. and Jackson, P., 2014. Conflict, security and development: An introduction. Routledge.

Hirsh, J.B. and Kang, S.K., 2016. Mechanisms of identity conflict: Uncertainty, anxiety, and the behavioural inhibition system. Personality and Social Psychology Review20(3), pp.223-244.

Mac Ginty, R. and Williams, A., 2016. Conflict and development. Routledge.

Miall, H., 2004. Conflict transformation: A multi-dimensional task. In Transforming ethnopolitical conflict (pp. 67-89). VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden.

Thomas, K.W., 1992. Conflict and conflict management: Reflections and update. Journal of organizational behavior13(3), pp.265-274.

Wallensteen, P., 2015. Understanding conflict resolution. Sage.

Wilkes-Allemann, J., Pütz, M., Hirschi, C. and Fischer, C., 2015. Conflict situations and response strategies in urban forests in Switzerland. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 30(3), pp.204-216.



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