Affiliation Integumentary and Skeletal Systems
The human body is a combination of several cells and tissues which collectively form different organ systems. These systems ensure homeostasis and the sustainability of the human body. The skeletal system and integumentary system are one of these essential systems of the human body. Both of these systems depend on each other, and this paper will focus on how both of these systems function to maintain the homeostasis of the body (Rodan, 1998).
The skeletal system is composed of bones which are the major component of the system along with cartilage, ligaments, and tendons. The 206 bones in the human body are divided into two types of skeleton which are an axial and appendicular skeleton. The main function of the skeletal system is to provide support and protection. Similarly, the integumentary system is made up of skin, hair, glands, nails, and nerves (“Functions of the Integumentary System,” 2013). It serves as a barrier to the protection of the body from the external environment. The integumentary system maintains homeostasis by providing a protective layer between external and internal environment. The subcutaneous layer of fat functions to absorb impact and stops internal trauma. On the other hand, the skeletal system sustains homeostasis through the bones. The bone marrow found in bones forms new red blood cells as the old ones die (Services, 2004). These red blood cells are essential because they are carriers of oxygen.
If homeostasis is not maintained then many problems can occur like diseases such as diabetes, cellular malfunctioning, deficiency, and toxicity. Bones normally act as levers for the muscles so that body parts can move (Services, 2004). Bones are made up of four types of cells that are osteoprogenitor, osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts. All of these cells are involved in some important processes like osteoblasts producing the bone matrix in osteogenesis. Osteoclasts are involved in the phenomenon of osteolysis. Osteoprogenitor cells are involved in producing osteoblast. Osteocytes are mainly responsible for bone remodeling to repair damaged bone.
There are many factors that affect the action of bones, and among these factors, the most important are genes, environment, physical activity, and diet of a person (“System Connections,” 2017). Bones and skeleton systems require particular types of nutritional elements which are necessary to build tissue. Bones require calcium and phosphorus for proper growth and functioning. Deficiency or excess of any essential mineral can result in diseases like osteoporosis. The bones undergo the phenomenon of resorption in which bones are destructed by osteoclasts and then formed again by osteoblasts. The human body balances both of these processes in the adult skeleton by sustaining a constant and homeostatically regulated amount of bone (Rodan, 1998). The human body couples up both of these processes mechanistically which involves multiple factors like IGFs and TGFs. They are released as a result of resorption and initiate bone formation.
The causal factors of osteoporosis are age, gender, family history, and bone structure or bone weight. Among these casual factors, only bone structure and weight can be treated with proper intake of calcium and vitamin D. Moreover, strength training and weight-bearing exercises can also be helpful (“System Connections,” 2017). Currently, hormone replacement therapy is considered to be the most suitable treatment for osteoporosis but only when all other treatments have been used, and all risks associated with it are explained to the patient. It is because there are some side effects of HRT such as myocardial infarction and ovarian cancer.
In short, both the skeletal and integumentary system is necessary for the maintenance of homeostasis in the body. These systems have an indirect relationship because the skeletal system depends on the integumentary system for calcium which is essential to keep the bones strong and hard. Therefore, it is necessary that both processes are functioning properly so that homeostasis is effectively initiated.
Functions of the Integumentary System. (2013). Retrieved from https://opentextbc.ca/anatomyandphysiology/chapter/functions-of-the-integumentary-system/
Rodan, G. A. (1998). Bone Homeostasis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95(23), 13361–13362.
Services, U. D. of H. and H. (2004). Bone health and osteoporosis: a report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Surgeon General, 87.
System Connections. (2017). Retrieved from http://wps.aw.com/bc_marieb_hap_9_oa/218/55882/14305796.cw/index.html