Assessment of the situation with women’s employment is contradictory and ambiguous. In what is it manifested? On the one hand, in many government and alternative reports, academic reports of local and foreign authors noted the deteriorating situation of women in the labor market and in employment. On the other hand, Some data from sociological research, official statistics, daily practice, and life experience indicate that the positive trends in the area of women’s employment practically remain unnoticed or ignored.
Proposed Research Questions
- What is the role of women and their place in the labor market and in employment?
- What factors contribute to the feminization of poverty?
- What are the relations of the state, and all social institutions to the problem of female employment?
- What is the contribution of women to the family?
- What is the income level of workers compared to men?
- What factors influence the increase in discrimination against women in the field of employment?
- What are the prospects for the development of women’s employment in America?
These issues require a comprehensive, comprehensive, objective approach to analysis and assessment of the situation of women in the labor market and in employment. A one-sided, subjectivist approach cannot reflect the real picture because it does not take into account all aspects and aspects of the phenomenon under study. Perhaps, Therefore, the conclusions are sufficiently standardized, but recommendations do not have real power while remaining declarative. In this research report, An attempt has been made to find answers to these questions in order to understand the causes and mechanisms of generation of the phenomenon under study, as well as the motives and needs, stereotypes, and attitudes of people in their social context.
Feminization of poverty in America is associated with an inefficient use of women’s labor potential and existing gender discrimination labor market and employment.
Purpose of the study
Determine the impact of socio-economic conditions on the situation of working women and assess the extent of gender inequality in the labor market and in the sphere of employment in the U.S.
- Analyze and give an objective assessment of the status of women in the market labor and employment;
- Conduct a gender measurement of the position of men and women in the labor market;
- Collect quantitative and qualitative data on the contribution-working women in material support of their families;
- To identify sustainable links between discrimination against women in the marketplace labor and the feminization of poverty in America;
- Identify positive trends that help improve the situation of women in employment;
- Get analytical information for further analysis of factors risk in the area of women’s employment;
A study commissioned by the United Nations Development Program and supported by the Civil Service and Anti-Corruption Agency in 2017 showed that the reforms are changing the situation for the better, but there are still facts of tribalism, assault, and sexual harassment in the civil service. The study was conducted among 6 735 respondents in all 16 regions of the U.S.; it included ordinary citizens and entrepreneurs. It turned out that entrepreneurs highly appreciated the situation with the ethic of the behavior of civil servants, which, in comparison with previous years, is improving. 71% of respondents believe that the majority of civil servants comply with the rules of professional ethics in full, and 81% believe that their colleagues observe the generally accepted moral and ethical standards of conduct. However, there are still some moments, such as a delay in work (more than half of the polled civil servants are detained daily for 1 hour and 20 minutes), 78% of cases of non-payment for overtime, 41% admitted to executing management orders not related to their own direct service duties. 47% of the politicians are not completely clear, but rather formally open, patronage, tribalism, and personal ties play a significant role in promotion, while at the workplace they were faced with cases of discrimination in the level of education, the prestige of the institution, origin, language, socio-property about 15% of civil servants, 17.9% – participated in or observed the conversation in high-pitched tones, the transition to personalities, mats in the resolution of work issues, 2% – noted cases of assault and other forms of intimidation in the decision of workers’ confessions, less than 2% – there is unwanted attention with sexual overtones, in 1.4% of cases sexual harassment by superiors or other employees.
In general, according to her information, 44% of respondents – were employees of central state bodies, and 47% – were local. 93.1% noted that they were familiar with the content of the code of ethics, but for 32.2%, many items remained unclear to the full. Almost 40% of respondents noted the need to clarify the main provisions of the code of ethics. On average, only 43.4% correctly answered questions about knowledge of the provisions of the code.
Preventive work, in general, gives its advantages. As an example, in the summer of 2017, not a single state of emergency was allowed at the exit of civil servants to the EXPO exhibition in Astana, but today, it is not known about the facts of khan’s behavior toward civil servants when visiting entertainment centers. However, problems directly remain in detail, which greatly affects the efficiency of work.
Life shows that in the plan of shortsightedness, some workers of local executive bodies are tough nuts. They do not take preventive talks and examples until their career breaks down. In 2017, in our region, corruption was judged against a number of officials, including managers of the official level. It is necessary to take measures to end this.
To this end, it is necessary to strengthen the responsibility of the leader for the actions of his subordinates, and the responsibility of the whole team for the action of any of its members. As the ethics commissioner noted, on the one hand, any employee will know that the entire collection will suffer from unethical actions and will remain without bonuses, and, on the other hand, this will increase the role of ethics. As an example, a question was posed with anonymous letters to a certain person.
I think that this evil greatly damages our nerves and damages our work. The word hurts more painfully than a knife. For example, a civil servant is working honestly and is on the rise according to the principle of meritocracy, but on the eve comes a letter from a certain person who writes a different and pours dirt. It begins to be checked and pulled by this employee, who must prove that he is not guilty. It turns out that the sender of the letter does not live at the specified address, and if he lives, he did not write any letter, and the anonymous author used his data. , the sediment remained.
Such situations, in his opinion, can be significantly reduced by changing the procedure for sending such messages, as well as protecting the honor and dignity of the civil servant in case the complaint was unreasonable.
Commenting on the issue related to sexual harassment, in such cases, civil servants should report the incident. Commenting on the problem of tribalism, she noted that today out-of-competition movements in the civil service had been reduced 18 times. The methods of combating unsightly phenomena will be further improved in the future.
The former bodyguard of Donald Trump, Keith Schiller, said that in 2013 in New York, after the contest Miss Universe, the current US president allegedly tried to send five American prostitutes into the room. About this Schiller said during a private meeting of the Intelligence Committee of the House of Representatives of the US Congress. Curiously, according to Schiller, he took this proposal as a joke, and Trump laughed at the situation and went into the room alone, according to NBC News. However, the guest of the contest Miss Universe, which was held in New York in 2013.
Is not Trump a man? Well, they called him prostitutes, well, they did not need – so what? It seems that prostitutes are not people or women. Even if he was called to prostitutes so that he could have fun with them – and what? With the same success, Valeria (Prigogine’s wife – NOS).
Something they are picking on sexual topics today. What is going on in the world? Man is a living organism. Today he is a janitor, and tomorrow is a president. Today he is president, and tomorrow – again, a janitor. Life is unpredictable. Trump was a businessperson. It is important to understand how he will behave as president. Americans should show maximum respect to their leader. However, their media are trying to slander the nonexistent stories of their president. The people who today run into Trump do not suffer a loss. They are afraid that he can make a good country and build relations with America.
We add that Trump’s opponents in the United States are sure that there is dirt in America, with the help of which pressure on Donald Trump is possible. A dossier on the current president of America was compiled by the research company Fusion GPS. In it, for the first time, information was sounded that Trump could hire prostitutes when he was in America.
Proposed Research Methods
Methodology of research to obtain a more accurate, complete, and reliable empirical material, several methods of collecting information will simultaneously be used, that is triangulation. The method of in-depth interviews will be the main method of collecting information as additional methods, methods documentary research, and a survey of experts.
For in-depth interviews (UI) with working women, there will be a standardized questionnaire (blank interview) developed, consisting of several relevant issues. The interview form will include 60 open, 45 closed and 35 semi-closed questions. 191 women will be interviewed individual order in the form of face-to-face.
The sample will be established in accordance with parameters: age, place of residence (city/village), region, education, marital status, the availability of children, and nationality. In addition, the prevalence of socio-occupational groups regions, proportionality spheres employment, qualified and unskilled labor, and the presence and absence of qualifications and experience.
Barak, Azy. “Sexual Harassment on the Internet.” Social Science Computer Review, vol. 23, no. 1, 2005, pp. 77–92, doi:10.1177/0894439304271540.
O’Leary-Kelly, Anne M., et al. “Sexual Harassment at Work: A Decade (Plus) of Progress.” Journal of Management, vol. 35, no. 3, 2009, pp. 503–36, doi:10.1177/0149206308330555.
Zeigler-Hill, Virgil, et al. “The Dark Triad and Sexual Harassment Proclivity.” Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 89, 2016, pp. 47–54, doi:10.1016/j.paid.2015.09.048.
Uggen, Christopher, and Amy Blackstone. “Sexual Harassment as a Gendered Expression of Power.” American Sociological Review, vol. 69, no. 1, 2004, pp. 64–92, doi:10.1177/000312240406900105.
Welsh, Sandy, et al. “‘I’m Not Thinking of It as Sexual Harassment’: Understanding Harassment across Race and Citizenship.” Gender and Society, vol. 20, no. 1, 2006, pp. 87–107, doi:10.1177/0891243205282785.
Hill, Catherine, and Holly Kearl. “Crossing the Line: Sexual Harassment at School.” Aauw, 2011.
Mohipp, Charmaine, and Charlene Y. Senn. “Graduate Students’ Perceptions of Contrapower Sexual Harassment.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence, vol. 23, no. 9, 2008, pp. 1258–76, doi:10.1177/0886260508314299.
Avina, Claudia, and William O’Donohue. “Sexual Harassment and PTSD: Is Sexual Harassment Diagnosable Trauma?” Journal of Traumatic Stress, vol. 15, no. 1, 2002, pp. 69–75, doi:10.1023/A:1014387429057.
Dekker, I., and J. Barling. “Personal and Organizational Predictors of Workplace Sexual Harassment of Women by Men.” Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, vol. 3, no. 1, 1998, pp. 7–18, doi:10.1037/1076-89220.127.116.11.
O’Donohue, William, et al. “Sexual Harassment: A Review of the Literature.” Aggression and Violent Behavior, vol. 3, no. 2, 1998, pp. 111–28, doi:10.1016/S1359-1789(97)00011-6.
Dougherty, Debbie S., and Mary Jeanette Smythe. “Sensemaking, Organizational Culture, and Sexual Harassment.” Journal of Applied Communication Research, vol. 32, no. 4, 2004, pp. 293–317, doi:10.1080/0090988042000275998.
Berdahl, Jennifer L., and Jana L. Raver. “Sexual Harassment.” APA Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Vol 3: Maintaining, Expanding, and Contracting the Organization, vol. 3, no. 17, 2011, pp. 641–69, doi:10.1037/12171-018.