Academic Master

Environmental Science

What are the characteristics and effects of Atrazine? 

Atrazine is a herbicide-based weed-killer which is mainly used in the fields of corn. Atrazine is a very common chemical pollutant on the ground and the surface of the water in the U.S. and other countries. It is a strong endocrine disruptor with killing-based harms in wildlife and animals, research laboratory animals and human beings. Atrazine chemically sterilizes and feminizes animals and decreases the immune system in both laboratory rodents and wildlife. Atrazine comprises prostate and breast cancer, delays mammary growth, and persuades abortion in research laboratory rodents. Research in human inhabitants and tissue and cells, Research proposes that atrazine postures alike intimidate human beings.

Atrazine is refused regulatory approval by the European Union and is, therefore, barred in the European Union and also in Switzerland, the main place of the manufacturer. Despite the ecological and public-health dangers, atrazine endures being rummaged in the United States for economic aims. Atrazine might only upsurge the yield of a corn field by as little as 1.2 per cent (and not at all in accord with several studies. The agri-giant Syngenta, though, has a very influential foyer and consumed 250,000 dollars in politicization in Minnesota only in the year 2005 to retain atrazine on the marketplace there(Ryan, 1970).

With only a 1.2 per cent upsurge in the production of corn, a yield that the people eat fewer than 2 per cent of, in the earth where more than 20 per cent of the populace would decrease due to hunger, it is obligatory for mankind to be elaborated in the regulatory procedure concerning atrazine. The general public must play an important part in the regulatory-based verdict.

How much Atrazine is applied each year in the U.S.? 

In the U.S., in the year 2014, atrazine was the 2nd extensively used herbicide afterwards glyphosate, with more than 76 million pounds of it used in the crops every year. Atrazine remains to be one of the most extensively used herbicides in the Agriculture of Australia. Its use was barred in the EU in the year 2004 when the European Union discovered that the groundwater levels beyond the bounds that are set by controllers and Syngenta could show neither that this might be prevented nor that these stages are harmless.

What does it mean when a chemical is said to be an “endocrine disruptor”?

Endocrine disruptors are the chemical substances that might affect the human’s endocrine system and produce contrary developing, generative, nervous, and immune-based harms in both wildlife and humans. An extensive variety of chemicals, both man-made and natural, are supposed to sources of endocrine disruption, comprising of medicines, dioxin-like and dioxin chemicals, DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls,  and further insecticides, and plasticizers, for example, biphenyl A. Endocrine-disruptors might originate in several daily kinds of stuff comprising metal-food cans, plastic-bottles, flame-retardants detergents, toys, food, pesticides, and cosmetics. The NIEHS backs the studies to conclude if exposures to endocrine disruptors might result in the health of humans. Its harms include less fertility and a bigger occurrence of endometriosis and several cancers. The investigation has shown that endocrine disruptors might pose the utmost risk in prenatal and initial postnatal progress when neural systems and organs are formed(Armstrong, Chesters, & Harris, 1967).

Describe the experiments and results reported by Tyrone Hayes on Atrazine. Describe the reaction of Atrazine’s manufacturer to Hayes’ results.

Tyrone Hayes, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, noted that all of the researchers that were unsuccessful in resulting that atrazine instigated hermaphroditism were overwhelmed by the poor experimental controls and were subsidized by Syngenta, one of the corporations that are producing this chemical substance. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and its self-governing Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) have inspected all of the accessible research on this subject, including Hayes’ exertion and decided that there is presently inadequate information available to conclude if atrazine disturbs amphibian progress. Hayes was previously part of the SAP panel and resigned in 2000 to endure his research freely. The EPA and its SAP had made some endorsements about the proper study design required for the additional study on this matter. As obligatory by the EPA, Syngenta has led two experimentations in Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) and review by the EPA and German regulatory authorities. The research paper has concluded that these researchers prove that long-lasting contact of larval X.  laevis to atrazine at concentrations ranging from 0. 01 to 100 microg/l does not disturb the development, larval growth, or sexual difference.  Additional independent research in the year 2008 has determined that the letdown of new researchers to find out that atrazine feminizes X. Laevis calls into interrogation the herbicide’s part of that decline. A study published in Environmental Science and Technology quotes the independent effort of investigators in Japan, who were incapable of imitating Hayes’ effort. The experts have discovered no androgynous frogs, no upsurge in aromatase as measured by aromatase mRNA induction, and no upsurge in vitellogenin, an additional indicator of feminization(Arnold, Hickey, & Harris, 1995).

In 2003, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) announced that the EPA was reviewing Atrazine because of concerns that the herbicide may be  Carcinogenic. Describe the results of that review.

Atrazine is useful in farming fields or in crops to kill weeds. It is also being used near to the highways and railroads for similar determinations. Several atrazines might enter the atmosphere after it is functional to the mud. Certain atrazine might also be eroded from the ground by precipitation and enter nearby parts, including lakes, streams, or further waterways. Certain atrazine might travel from the upper soil surface to the more profound soil layers and enter the groundwater. Afterwards, atrazine is used in the soils; it would stay there for numerous days to some months; in rare circumstances, it might remain in the ground for several years. However, in the majority of the circumstances, atrazine would be broken down in the ground over a retro of one rising season. Furthermore, to being detached from the ground, atrazine is also taken-up by the shrubberies and plants that grow there, and this approval is the 1st step to kill the weeds. Every atrazine that is eroded from the ground into the watercourses and other forms of water would stay there for a longer time since the failure of the chemical substances is slower in lakes and rivers. It would also persevere for a longer time in groundwater. This is one of the reasons why atrazine is usually discovered in the water, which is collected from the water water-wells in several agricultural areas. If atrazine entered the air, it could be broken down by responses to other reactive chemical substances in the air. Although, occasionally, atrazine is on elements, for example, in the dust. When this occurs, breaking down is not probable to happen. Atrazine is detached from the atmosphere mostly because of the rainfall. When atrazine is on the particles of dust, the breeze could blow it long distances from the adjacent application part. For instance, atrazine is discovered in the rainwater for more than 180 miles from the adjacent application part. Atrazine doesn’t have a habit of accruing in living things, for example, bacteria, clams, algae, or fish, and, consequently, doesn’t have a routine of build-up in the food chains.

The majority of the individuals are not ready to take atrazine on an everyday basis. Individuals who are living nearer to the places where atrazine was used to yield might be bare over dirty drinking water. Atrazine is discovered at around 20 Super-fund places in the U.S. Individuals who are residing nearer to those places might be bare to the advanced stages of atrazine. If a person is a worker in a factory who works with the atrazine chemical, that person might be bared to an advanced level of atrazine chemical. The administration has projected that about 1,000 persons might be bared to the atrazine chemical in the method. Atrazine chemical, one of the furthermost extensively used herbicides in the U.S, is deliberately practical to the yields, particularly sugarcane, corn, sorghum, and pineapples. Consequently, persons who live in the nearer places where these yields are grown, especially the workers on the farm and herbicide-applicators who use atrazine chemicals, might be bared to the atrazine chemical as it is cast in the farming sector. A person might be bared to the atrazine chemical if he is close when yields are preserved with the atrazine chemical, if a person is involved in the use of atrazine chemical to the yields, or if a person is nearer to other areas where it is used. The majority of the time, atrazine chemical is not discovered in higher concentrations in the atmosphere but might be discovered in higher concentrations in the atmosphere nearer to the disposal amenities or nearer places where it is being used for the yields. A person might also be bared to atrazine chemicals by excavating in the dirt that contains atrazine chemicals in it. Children might be born to the atrazine chemical by playing in the mud and dirt that comprises atrazine chemical(Radosevich, Traina, Hao, & Tuovinen, 1995).

Why was Atrazine banned in the European Union in 2004?

Atrazine is a widely used agricultural herbicide with endocrine disruptor activity. There is an indication that it affects the reproduction system and growth and might cause cancer. Though the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) permitted its continual usage in the year 2003, In a similar year the EU has proclaimed a prohibition of atrazine chemical due to its omnipresent and unavoidable water pollution. The studied supervisory events and administration documents, and report exertions by the producer of atrazine chemical, Syngenta, to affect the United States atrazine valuation, by succumbing faulty scientific based statistics as an indication of no damage, and by conferencing frequently and confidentially with EPA to discuss the administration’s regulatory method. Numerous of the particulars of these discussions endure being suspended from the general public, although EPA rules and regulations and federal open-government rules and regulations require such choices to be prepared openly. Keywords: atrazine; legislation; industry influence; herbicide; regulation; ethics(Balmer & Sulzberger, 1999).

2011, the U.S. National Cancer Institute published an Agricultural Health Study on Atrazine. What were the results of that study?

Atrazine is a triazine herbicide, which is widely used in the U.S. Although it is an animal-based carcinogen, the apparatus in rodents doesn’t seem to function in human beings. Several epidemiologic types of research have delivered proof of a connotation.

The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a potential unit that comprises 57,310 approved insecticide applicators. In the following report, an earlier AHS study of cancer-related hazards that is related to the self-reported use of atrazine with six further years to the continuation and furthermore than double as numerous cancer cases. By Poisson regression, the reports have calculated the comparative risk approximations and 95% of the confidence intervals for the lifetime usage of atrazine chemical and strength-biased lifetime days, which interprets the aspects that influence exposure.

In General, 36,357 (68%) of the applicators stated the use of atrazine chemical, of which there were around 3,146 cancer cases. There was no upsurge amongst atrazine operators in general cancer-based risks or at the majority of the cancer places in the further higher contact groups as likened with the lowermost. Grounded on 29 bared cases of thyroid cancer, there was a statistically major risk in the 2nd and 4th quartiles of the intensity-weighted lifetime days. There was an alike arrangement for lifetime days. However, neither cancer-based risk approximations nor the trends were statistically major and for neither metric was the trend monotonic.

In General, there was no reliable indication of an organization in between the usage of atrazine or some cancer place. There was a proposal of the enlarged danger of thyroid cancer, but these outcomes are founded on moderately fewer numbers and negligible secondary proof.

In 2012, the manufacturer of Atrazine – Syngenta Corporation – was at the centre of a class action lawsuit. Describe both the reason for the lawsuit and the conclusion.

Atrazine chemical run-off into water supplies has been related to several of the problems. These comprise enlarged risks related to environmental damage to amphibians, birth defects, and contamination of local water supplies.

Certain investigations have related atrazine chemicals to thoughtful health-based problems. A March 2013 Texas study discovered that offspring that are born in regions with a higher level of atrazine were double as likely to progress certain birth defects than offspring borns in regions with less level of atrazine. In the year 2002, an EPA risk-based valuation terminated associates in-between cancer and atrazine. This conclusion has continued to be contentious amongst user groups.

Another contest is that atrazine chemicals could lead to thoughtful conservational difficulties. A March 2010 study discovered that male frogs bared to atrazine chemical levels inside EPA rules and regulations came out to be more feminine based than protected frogs. Bared frogs develop low levels of testosterone. A minor fraction turns out to be functionally feminine and attain the capability to lay eggs and mate.

Farmers and Syngenta have energetically protected atrazine chemicals from condemnation. They have pointed out the EPA’s sustained endorsement of atrazine chemicals as late as in the year 2006. Agriculturalists have been dependent on atrazine chemicals for more than 50 years. Syngenta has noted that only several investigations from many have discovered that the disclosure of atrazine chemicals could indicate argumentative environmental and health-based harms.

The debate over the atrazine chemical has prolonged to the rooms of court. Corporations that produce and sell hazardous substances and chemicals could be sued when those substances or chemicals affect predictable damages and injuries. Product obligation rules and regulations permit these claims so that individuals who are wounded by hazardous substances or chemicals could obtain recompense from corporations that are accountable for the substances or chemicals. Liable on the appropriate laws, these rights could be grounded on firm obligation negligence or estates.

Persons who are living in those places where atrazine chemicals are usually used must keep a closer eye on the development of atrazine chemicals. Females who are pregnant or who might come to be pregnant must consider talking with their physician about the atrazine chemical present in the drinking water.

In 2015, the EPA was to complete a re-evaluation risk assessment for Atrazine. What were the results of that re-assessment?

The Environmental Protection Agency missed its particular aims for the implementation of risk-based assessments in the year 2015 for atrazine chemical, imidacloprid, and glyphosate, three extremely controversial, poisonous and frequently used insecticides. The valuations are vital to the thoughtfulness of these intimidations the insecticides pose to the animals, environment, and people.

“These risk assessments aren’t just bureaucratic boxes to be checked,” said Lori Ann Burd, environmental health director at the Center for Biological Diversity. “Every day that the EPA delays completing these much-needed reviews is a day that people and wildlife in the United States remain at risk from some of the most toxic chemicals in use today.”

Imidacloprid is one of the most extensively used pesticides on the planet; seeds preserved with this neonicotinoid are implanted in more than one million acres every year. It is extremely poisonous to the bees and extensively associated with their mass die-offs. In the pressure from the White House to speech affected bee falloffs, the EPA dedicated to completing a pollinator based risk-assessment for the strong pesticide in the year 2015 but has not freed any of such valuation. Imidacloprid and other neonicotinoids are barred in the E.U. and through the 150-million-acre nationwide wild-life refuge scheme. The United States Geological Survey has discovered imidacloprid, which is also very poisonous to aquatic invertebrates and birds, in about a quarter of all the streams verified in the review of seven Midwestern states.

The EPA has also dedicated itself to relief but was unsuccessful in releasing risk-based glyphosate assessments in 2015. With furthermore than 300 million pounds of soaking in the United States. Landscape every year, glyphosate is the furthermost frequently used insecticide in the United States. In July 2015, the agency proclaimed that it would be freeing environmental and human-health risk-based valuations for glyphosate, lately professed as a likely carcinogen by the WHO and the foremost reason for affected monarch butterfly declines. But notwithstanding the potential of a seasonal release, the agency has not freed any new risk-based assessments.

Do you think Atrazine should continue to be sold in the U.S.?

Atrazine has severe effects on human beings, animals, and the environment, and it should be banned in the United States.


Armstrong, D. E., Chesters, G., & Harris, R. F. (1967). Atrazine hydrolysis in the soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 31(1), 61–66.

Arnold, S. M., Hickey, W. J., & Harris, R. F. (1995). Degradation of atrazine by Fenton’s reagent: condition optimization and product quantification. Environmental Science & Technology, 29(8), 2083–2089.

Balmer, M. E., & Sulzberger, B. (1999). Atrazine degradation in irradiated iron/oxalate systems: effects of pH and oxalate. Environmental Science & Technology, 33(14), 2418–2424.

Radosevich, M., Traina, S. J., Hao, Y.-L., & Tuovinen, O. H. (1995). Degradation and mineralization of atrazine by a bacterial soil isolate. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 61(1), 297–302.

Ryan, G. F. (1970). The resistance of common groundsel to simazine and atrazine. Weed Science, 18(5), 614–616.



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