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West African Explorers In The New World Annotated Bibliography

Introduction

Table of Contents

This paper presents an annotated bibliography to outline the West African explorers in the New World, African contacts with the New World, and to further explore Chinese and other ethnicities or nationalities who arrived in the Western Hemisphere before Columbus, pre-Columbian voyages to the New World (the Americas). In other words, the paper explores the views of various authors and articles regarding the non-Native American) explorers who arrived in the Western Hemisphere –North, South or Central America or the Caribbean islands before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492.

Homburger, J. R., Moreno-Estrada, A., Gignoux, C. R., Nelson, D., Sanchez, E., Ortiz-Tello, P., & Gravel, S. (2015). Genomic insights into the ancestry and demographic history of South America. PLoS Genetics11(12), e1005602.

The article posits that South America consists of a very complex demographic history that is shaped by several migrations as well as admixture events, which happened during the pre- as well as post-colonial periods. The authors believe that America experienced migrations in the magnitude of the events as well as the timing of the migrations after the land was discovered by several European and African individuals. Nonetheless, the time and the magnitude of the actions are marked with various patents within America. The study established that many people trace their ancestry back to Italy. There was a correlation between the Native American and the South American ancestry.

Schroeder, H., Ávila-Arcos, M. C., Malaspinas, A. S., Poznik, G. D., Sandoval-Velasco, M., Carpenter, M. L., & Samaniego, J. A. (2015). Genome-wide ancestry of 17th-century enslaved Africans from the Caribbean. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences112(12), 3669-3673.

The article asserts that there was a migration of people from Africa to the new land. The majority of the people who were transported were believed to be slaves who were ferried to South America. The authors obtained some genome-wide information from the remains of three enslaved people who were demised on the Caribbean island and applied them in order to identify their genetic heritages within Africa with much better precision compared to what was previously thought possible.

Guido, P. C., Ribas, A., Gaioli, M., Quattrone, F., & Macchi, A. (2015). The state of the integrative medicine in Latin America: the long road to include complementary, natural, and traditional practices in formal health systems. European Journal of Integrative Medicine7(1), 5-12.

The article argues that between 1500 and 1850, several millions of enslaved Africans are believed to have been transported to America, the New World. They further argue that the majority were transported from West and Central Africa. However, their exact origins are mainly unknown. The authors investigated the genetic origin of slaves who died long ago. The authors traced the origins of these people, which were investigated, and it was established that their origin was from Africa. This evidence provides straightforward, direct evidence for various ethnic origins of the enslaved African people. The authors believe that Africans who were slaves were transported to a new world.

Vespucci, A., & Columbus, C. (1992). Letters from a new world: Amerigo Vespucci’s discovery of America. Marsilio Pub.

The authors who have expertise in anthropology, archaeology, and history study the native individuals during the colonial times of the history of North America. They argue that the fresh work in the Indian account has completely changed the manner in which people thought about the discovery of American history as well as about the movement of the people in a quest to discover the new land.

Nunn, G. E., & Edwards, C. R. (1992). The geographical conceptions of Columbus: a critical consideration of four problems (No. 14). Golda Meir Library.

The article argues that today, historians recognize that the people from Europe arrived in the land that had been occupied by many people for days. Overall, surveys of new reading materials argue that the Native Americans. The authors have explored the movement of the people and how they arrived at their destination, new land.

Columbus, C. (2004). The four voyages of Christopher Columbus. Penguin UK.

The article argues that Columbus did not discover the new land. They argue that after cruising into the Caribbean, he was enthralled by the beauty of the land. Thus, Columbus presumed that the stage environment was so because he was insufficiently experienced in writing. The article asserts that the discovery of the new land in America opened a new world that was full of fresh things and new possibilities. However, the authors believe that the New World, America, did not interfere with the old; instead, the old world was influenced by what people witnessed. The discovery was made by those who were inspired to discover a new world.

Bigelow, W. (1989). Discovering Columbus: Rereading the past. Language Arts66(6), 635-643.

The author encapsulates the colonization of America by the Europeans. They argue that Vikings were one of the first European colonizers and explorers. They believed that he was the first person to discover a new land, and he established colonies in Greenland, which survived for many years. Additionally, the arrival states that in the year 1492, a Spanish voyage headed that was led by Christopher Columbus arrived at the new land, thereafter European exploration as well as colonization quickly expanded. They first arrived in the Caribbean region. Thus, Columbus led his team on a voyage in the Bion to reach the new land.

Gerbi, A. (2010). Nature in the New World: From Christopher Columbus to Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo. The University of Pittsburgh Pre.

The article posits that many people in 1942, such as Columbus, sailed and made a trip to the ocean blue.  The article describes Columbus as a person who was determined to discover new land. At the time he lived in the Caribbean, he was thrilled by the beauty of nature. The authors believe that the Vikings’ arrival in the Americas was nearly as famous as Columbus’s voyage. Columbus ‘voyage and discovery of the new land pose a lot of questions as to where they arrived.

Wilson, J. (2000). The earth shall weep: A history of Native America. Grove Press.

The studies believed that Columbus was inspired to discover a new land. However, in recent years, with the discovery of new evidence, the understanding of the history concerning the discovery of America has changed. Thus, it is now common knowledge that Columbus was indeed among the most recent explorers to reach America and not the first.

Thompson, J. E. S., & Laufer, B. (1927). The civilization of the Mayas (No. 18-25). Field Museum of Natural History.

This article presents a clear knowledge of who discovered America before Columbus. The article describes how the trip made by Columbus led to the discovery of new land. The voyage toured many places, including the Caribbean area, and saw the beautiful nature.

Bigelow, B., & Peterson, B. (Eds.). (1998). Rethinking Columbus: The next 500 years. Rethinking Schools.

The articles encapsulate that after travelling for seven years, Columbus discovered America, which they described as covered with luxuriant vegetation, which is believed to date to be the current Newfoundland, America. Before the arrival of the European explorers, America was home to millions of native individuals. However, it is important to note that the native groups in America greatly differed from each other. The groups performed different ceremonies and rituals, dances and songs, which brought back the memories of the ancestors who had given them the lands they now settled in.

Utter, J. (2001). American Indians: Answers to today’s questions. University of Oklahoma Press.

This article presents the fundamental questions that run through the minds of many: who were the ancestors of the Native Americans, when did they arrive, and where did they come from? () asserts that the American lands have been the land of immigrants, the lands that have been rediscovered over the years by different individuals coming from different sections of the world. The author argues that Columbus first set foot on the American mainland at the Paria Peninsula, which is today known as Venezuela. Columbus’s work as a seaman made him obsessed with the plausibility of pioneering a western sea route. According to the article, this made him discover the land of America.

America, S., Vespucci, A., & Columbus, C. Encyclopedia> Americas.

The sailing of Columbus made him realize the lands that people did not know to exit. Further, people thought that the Atlantic Ocean, which extended to the East Indies, did not account for the presence of America. At this time, the people mostly participated in family investments, which allowed them to travel and concur with other regions of the world.

References

America, S., Vespucci, A., & Columbus, C. Encyclopedia> Americas.

Bigelow, B., & Peterson, B. (Eds.). (1998). Rethinking Columbus: The next 500 years. Rethinking Schools.

Columbus, C. (2004). The four voyages of Christopher Columbus. Penguin UK.

Gerbi, A. (2010). Nature in the New World: From Christopher Columbus to Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo. The University of Pittsburgh Pre.

Guido, P. C., Ribas, A., Gaioli, M., Quattrone, F., & Macchi, A. (2015). The state of the integrative medicine in Latin America: the long road to include complementary, natural, and traditional practices in formal health systems. European Journal of Integrative Medicine7(1), 5-12

Homburger, J. R., Moreno-Estrada, A., Gignoux, C. R., Nelson, D., Sanchez, E., Ortiz-Tello, P., & Gravel, S. (2015). Genomic insights into the ancestry and demographic history of South America. PLoS Genetics11(12), e1005602.

Nunn, G. E., & Edwards, C. R. (1992). The geographical conceptions of Columbus: a critical consideration of four problems (No. 14). Golda Meir Library.

Schroeder, H., Ávila-Arcos, M. C., Malaspinas, A. S., Poznik, G. D., Sandoval-Velasco, M., Carpenter, M. L., & Samaniego, J. A. (2015). Genome-wide ancestry of 17th-century enslaved Africans from the Caribbean. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences112(12), 3669-3673.

Thompson, J. E. S., & Laufer, B. (1927). The civilization of the Mayas (No. 18-25). Field Museum of Natural History.

Utter, J. (2001). American Indians: Answers to today’s questions. University of Oklahoma Press.

Vespucci, A., & Columbus, C. (1992). Letters from a new world: Amerigo Vespucci’s discovery of America. Marsilio Pub.

Wilson, J. (2000). The earth shall weep: A history of Native America. Grove Press.

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