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Validity and Reliability Essay


The instrument used in this questionnaire survey was SPSS. The SPSS was employed with the intention to know about the responses of the individuals. The survey questionnaire contains 110 items and identifies 13 styles of thinking regarding cognitive style test. The survey questionnaire assists the feelings about the marriage whether the person has become disillusioned and indicates losing faith and dissatisfaction or trust in the marriage. The instrument i.e. SPSS create the conditions for happiness such as affiliation, trusting of others, optimism, the locus of control, emotional stability, self-confidence, approval-seeking, and playfulness. The instrument also examines the styles which include trust style, externalizing style, dependency style, control style, blaming style, perfectionistic style, and demand style. The survey questionnaire was employed in the SPSS and assessed the tendencies which resulted in avoidance and anxiety.Description

The questionnaire survey measures the self-esteem which is the attitude of the person towards another person. As well as, this survey questionnaire considers whether a person has an anxiety disorder and assessed the degree of control that they feel in major areas of life such as interpersonal relationships, personal accomplishments, and political institutions.

The test applied on this survey questionnaire provides the knowledge about the individual on self-improvement. The questionnaire also provides the understanding of problem behavior due to behavior thought and the irrational thinking the person can learn to change it. It is important to understand the test applied in the questionnaire in order to retain the information. All of the 110 items were inserted in the SPSS software with the intention to further provide the statistical analysis or tests.

Psychometric Properties

Major types of reliability

The two major kinds of reliability taken in this study are inter-rater or inter-observer reliability. This reliability determines two observers consistent in the observations. The researcher establishes the measurement of inter-rater reliability in the study and uses to find out the data from the study with the intention to establish the reliability of the questionnaire. Hence, for each and every observation, the inter-rater checks three of the categories. The main way to evaluate the inter-rater reliability is suitable when the measure is continuous enough to run in the instrument (Joubert, Inceoglu, Bartram, Dowdeswell and Lin, 2015).

Test-retest reliability

This is the second main type of reliability which assumes substantial change and measures two of the occasions within the short time. The observations associated with the data may get identical factors to contribute to the error.

Types of validity

External validity

The external validity is regarding generalization which shows to what extent the data show the impact on the research study. This validity is examined by splitting two of the distinct kinds such as ecological validity and population validity (Pennebaker, Boyd, Jordan and Blackburn, 2015).

Internal validity

The internal validity measures the experiment of the design closely which follows the cause and effect of the principle. There is an alternative cause which demonstrates about the outcomes and observations (Csikszentmihalyi and Larson, 2014).

Psychometric Properties of the Instrument

This questionnaire includes several forms of reliability and validity whereas the psychometric properties of the instrument refer to the validity and reliability of the instrument which shows the difference among the two. The questionnaire reliability refers to the consistency of the data where the validity of the survey questionnaire tests the accuracy of the outcomes. The survey questionnaire reliability assists the data to have the valid assessment that can produce the prediction in the questionnaire and tests.


Joubert, T., Inceoglu, I., Bartram, D., Dowdeswell, K. and Lin, Y., 2015. A comparison of the psychometric properties of the forced choice and Likert scale versions of a personality instrument. International Journal of Selection and Assessment23(1), pp.92-97.

Pennebaker, J.W., Boyd, R.L., Jordan, K. and Blackburn, K., 2015. The development and psychometric properties of LIWC2015.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. and Larson, R., 2014. Validity and reliability of the experience-sampling method. In Flow and the foundations of positive psychology (pp. 35-54). Springer Netherlands.




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