According to the National Alliance for Autism Research (NAAR), Autism refers to the condition which challenges the behaviours, skills and the non-verbal communication of individual. It includes the speech, unique strength and the differences. The disorder caused by the genetics and the environmental influences over the individual. Without the understanding of Autism, the people and children are at risk of isolation. It can lead to the development of the mental health problems. Other than thinking of people the disease is much common and prevalent in the society. In the UK, around seven million people are facing the challenge of Autism. In the last two decades, the understanding of the autism developed with the extended research by the psychologist. Various theories illustrate the role of multiple genes and the behavioural symptoms in the people with Autistic Spectrum Disorder.
The current scientific research has pointed out various links of the autism. The author Goldstein, (2016) describe the global mental disorder that is consistently rising among the people. It is not only limited to the children, but it can be possible for the adults. The disease if not appropriately treated became the adult autistic problem. The psychologist are of the view that autism must be considered seriously and it should intervene through the proper mental care centre. The theoretical perspective also supported the ideas of the psychologist and explained the disorder as injurious to the mental health.
The Uta Frith first propounded the theory of mind in the years of 1985. The approach was the initial research of the first symptom A criteria of the DSM-5. The method has pointed out certain persisting deficits in the social and communicational interactions of the individuals with ASD. The theory of the mind revolves around the neurotypical ability of the people which they will have to imply for mental states of others. The ability unfolded during the initial developmental stages of the child (Abdulla, 2015). The ability established at the age of 4-5 years. The ability also provides the social cues in individual’s development. Those children having ASD are impaired of such strength. It is essential to strengthen the neurotypical knowledge which will help the individual to perform socio-psychological functions.
The mental ability is essential for dealing with the anticipating behaviour. According to the theory of the mind, the psychological strength helps the child to understand the thinking of the others. It also includes the primary mental states like dreaming, cheating, and the believing. We can anticipate the social behaviour and those people that surround us (Goldstein, 2016). The power of the ability circulates the reading of the other’s mind. It also includes the beliefs about what other people think. The individual with mental capabilities can question that why other person was reacting or thinking in s specific mood. The requirement of those skills that develop in the neurotypical children includes the joint attention and the emotional empathy.
The joint attention skills steadily pay attention to the action, and it appears in the children at the age of nine months. The cognitive and the emotional empathy is the capacity which put one’s to in other’s place (Frith, 2003). The ability appears among the children at the age of two years. Movement with the mentalist terrain is something complicated for the people with autistic disorder. In contrast with the people having autism, the healthy development has no explicit information. However, the individual with autism has a lot of difficulties in attaining the respective data. The people with the autistic disorder requires breaking the social behaviour within the different pieces in order of their understanding.
The assessment to judge the mentalist skills requires two different tasks. Those would be the first order false belief and the second-order false belief. The first order can be tested through the Sally-Anne tests by the Wimer Perner. The second order can be through the birthday tasks by Sullivan and the Cols. By applying both tests the psychologist and the examiner can have the better result to assess the individual with the mental disorder. It will also help in the intervention process and rehabilitation of the child with autistic disorder.
There are the variety of research and experiment is going on by the different organisations and alliances for the understanding and the development that happened during the last two decades. Similarly, the writing and the work of Uta Frith is regarded as the leading expert in the current study and the psychological theory of autism (Bolton, 2018). The work of the psychologist has been positively perceived. The research of Frith profoundly influences the current mental methods along the neurological descriptions of the disorder. The work contains excellent detail of the subject and helps the researchers in their understanding. The psychology of the autism provides exciting information to the students and the professionals for their current knowledge of the issue.
For the future intervention processes and feeding of the theories, the research of the Frith is essential for people of different walk of life. Recent understanding of the complex spectrum condition can be resolved by focusing on the analysis of the work done by the Uta Frith. The professionals are working on an extending the research and have unfolded the striking enrichments on the subject. The study of the dramatic imagining and the brain studies is radically revised through various studies (Bolton, 2018). The researchers are approaching towards the clarification of the fundamental nature of the autism.
The recent understanding of the different aspects of the autism is consistently developing. The various studies like research on “Autism Speak” a private organisation frequently analyse the characteristics and the difficulties of the individual in behaviour, sensory sensitivities and the gap in the communication. These aspects are shared among the people in western and eastern cultures. In the same way, some of the characteristics are common among the people on the spectrum (Cutress, 2014). Other individuals have the typical disability, and all people with autism disorder do not necessarily exhibit it. The behaviour of the people with disease exhibit unusual reaction, like the particular focuses of the intense interest. The reason for such attitude and the response is the feeling of communication or to handle the situation in hand.
The heightened sensitivity of people with autism disorder leads to their behavioural problems. They can have the stereotyped and the repetitive movements of the body which includes the flapping of hands and the spinning. The increased sound or the things felt by people with the disorder also disturbed their behaviour (Gomot, 2008). These people with their disease can reduce the uncertainty by sticking to their routines and spending times in the repetitive actions. By doing this, they can also maintain their predictability according to the environment. Other behaviours of autism people include the repeated use of objects like the switching on and off the lights along with lining up their toys.
The consistency with the same routine shows that individual was having the problem of autism. Doing the same things every day and the sticking to the same home route each day exemplifies the behaviour of the individual with autistic disorder. Sniffing of the objects and the staring intention towards a moving object reveals the unusual sensory interest of the autistic people. Similarly, the avoidance of the typical sound and the textures like vacuum cleaners and sand are the signs of the disrupted behaviour of ASD. The social interactions of the people with autism are limited.
The limited relations with other people shows that autistic individuals are facing difficulties in establishing their social contacts. They do not respond to the non-verbal forms of the communication (Silberman, 2015). The reasonable person can react to those non-verbal acts of dialogue like the exchange of facial expression, eye contact, and the physical gestures. They cannot understand their needs and cannot express those needs. The limited use and the interpretation of the nonverbal communication like gazing of eyes make the difficult situation for people with autism. Suck kind of impairment restrict these individuals from sharing of an activity and the interests of other people.
The impairment that restrains autistic people leads to their isolation from social activities and events. These impair individuals are often delayed in their speech and reaction towards interacting expressions and other forms of communication. Tired of the internal mental complexities these people withdraw the repetitive play and avoid any interaction. They are unable to form and sustain friends. They have lack of abilities to enjoy, share and the other activities with other individuals. They cannot respond to the emotional, and the responsive calls form the society.
The people with autism play the insufficient role in the progress and the development of the society. They cannot help the needy person. It is difficult for them to manage the social events and the activities. Similarly, the social problem are attached to them. Other than the social aspect these individuals also lack the communication. In one form or the other, these people are facing numerous difficulties (Gomot, 2008). However certain people with autism speaks the fluent language. The divide between these people shows that some of them are the half speaker or chat with some trouble. In the same way, there are individuals’ that are unable to speak at all. This unfolded that there level of degrees among these people having the autistic spectrum disorder.
The latest research and the understanding of Cure Autism Now (CAN) foundation reveal that those people that speak a little language cannot convey their message to the person they confront. The usual way of expressing the thoughts and the limited use of the language lead to the creation of problems for the people with autism (Le 2015). They repeat the same phrase and words to the person they converse and also ask the repeated questions to him. These people use the exciting topics in their communication which create difficulties for them. They focused only on their appealing issues and problems of conversation. Similarly, they have trouble in revealing and interpreting nonverbal forms of the discussion. The delay in the development of language leads to the impaired communication.
The impaired conversation implies the restrictions in initiating and sustaining of the talk. It includes the repetitive phrasing and the stereotypes language. Paul Collins describes the impairment of speech as overexpression of the traits that make our species unique. Following this scientist are trying to unfold the real issues and the meaning of the autistic disorder. According to the Simon Baron and Cohen autism and the Asperger syndrome consist of the lifespan approach (Baron, 2008). He includes the intervention process by applying the theory of empathising and systematising (ES). Through the application of the method, Simon has outlined all the psychological features that are associated with the conditions of the autistic spectrum. The books include the individuals along with their families and the people with ASD conditions.
Social and the biological scientist are exploring about the autism through the review and understanding the book of Simon. Professionals are implying interventions that are provided in the book. It will also help the teachers, professionals and the psychologists that are contributing to diagnosing and caring for the autistic spectrum. Simon has included the prevalence, assessment, intervention, and influence of the depression in autism. Intervention issues are there when considering the role of low autism and the Asperger syndrome. The social withdrawal and the disturbance in the sleep are the elements attached to the depression. The illness of depression influences the impaired communication and the exchange of ideas.
Verbal and nonverbal conversation are linked with the cause of depression by the Simon. The elements of autism like the obsession and the injuries by the individual might be increased with the attack of depression (Le 2015). During the intervention process for the autism and Asperger syndrome scientist are considering the measurement of depression that could influence the disease. They are developing the scientific tools for tackling the combination of low with autism. Current technological development can elevate the distress that caused by the intervening illness. Simon through his work has helped the psychologist and clinician to look into the recent development and association of the autism with other mental disorders.
The current understanding of the autism includes the classic account of the disorder. The research in neuropsychology and the implication of practical theories are under process. The recent investigation of the neurological impacts and psychological impairments in the autism have elaborated by the scientist of mind. The research is broadened to the ordinary reader so that people know the real effects of the autism. People in the post-modern era not aware of the causes and problems of autism (Baron, 2008). For some the word is new, and they ask what it implies. For that matter, various psychologist and the professionals are trying to expand the knowledge towards ordinary individuals for restricting the further expansion of the ASD.
One of the social scientist and the author of Neurotribes, Silberman has regretted the idea of familiar feelings towards the problem of autism. His work is one of the best sellers in the different states. He argues that there should be a broader model for the participation and understanding of those people who have opposite view about the autism. According to the writer, the autism is the lifelong disability that implies natural occurring. It is a form of akin that which compares it with the genius mind. The reporter further explains the autism by pointing towards the level of understanding of society about the autism (Silberman, 2015). The future of our generation will depend on the current diagnostician and active intervention of the disease. The most important contribution of the Silberman is the explanation that autism has the long history.
He argues that the disease was suppressed before and some cases soared in the recent years due to the suppression of autism by the scientist. Unfolding the early symptoms of the autism the author has provided the gripping narrative of the Leo Kanner. The pioneer of the autism according to the author has described the autism in an entirely different way. He unfolded the changing phenomena of the neurodiversity. In the Neurotribes he discusses the idea that nature does not cause the differences in the neurology. These are autism dyslexia and the ADHD. There is no influence of toxic world over these syndromes. Due to the natural variations in the genome of human these syndrome are affected (Masataka, 2017).
The book has contributed to changing and reshaping of history, functions and the implications of neurodiversity in our world. It has also helped the scientist of the present era to discover new things in intervening the autism. In the same way the writer of the book Uniquely Human Prizant has provided a different look at the science of autism. He has won the award for his literary work. The scientist has implied the word unique to the patients with autism. He portrays the autism as the unique way for the human beings. The book included the simple and profoundly positive approach. The therapy of autism revolves around the ridding autistic symptoms. Those are the issues in interacting socially, sensory challenges, and repetitive patterns of the behaviour.
Dr Barry has provided a new and compelling approach towards the problem of autism. According to him the most convincing method of autism is not fixing an individual through the elimination of his symptoms (Prizant, 2015). He emphasises that we need to understand the old face by a person along with the issues that underlie personal behaviour. The doctor has chosen the pure understanding and the humane approach towards the issue of autism. He does not characterise the sign of the autism as the form of pathology. He looked at them through the strategies with the thoughts of feeling overwhelming and chaotic. He was of the view that curbing the behaviour that implied autistic influence is not a solution. He asks for the promotion of those abilities and the strengths that offer support to the improved and enhance the quality of the individual’s life.
The four-decade career and experience of Dr Barry are reflecting through his book. The Uniquely Humans has provided the inspirational and practical lessons to the teacher, scientist and the professionals that are involved in the research and study of the autism. The author had applied honest approach for the people with autism and praised their lives. Through his book, his conveyed positive humanistic thoughts and appreciated the unique qualities of the autistic people. He also provided hope to the parents and the children that are facing autism. Giving them the special status the writer has to reassure the disables that they break their heart instead enjoy the speciality and the uniqueness of their life (Prizant, 2015).
During the last two decades, the understanding of the autism has developed by the writings and the research of people that are associated with the complex problem of autism. Studies show that joint disease of the autism has drastically affected the lives of people across the world. In the complex and the post-modern era, autism is silently killing many individuals. There are one in three adults that lacks the support and experiencing the mental health and autism issues. Around sixty-three percent of the children are out of any care centre with the autism spectrum (Le 2015). Parents are observed saying that they will handle their child. Certain social and economic disparities hinder the health of adults and the children.
The psychological war and the complexities have led to the increased development of depression. The depression is primarily linked to the autism. The national autistic society of the UK has revealed that other than children adults can be affected by the problem of autism. Seventy percent of the autistic adults said that they are not getting any support to over their issue. In the same way, those who are having proper treatment reveal that are consistently recovering their mental health.
Concluding the discussion on the problem of autism it is estimated that the autism spectrum disorder is consecutively increasing among the nationals of various states. Finding and comparison from the different region of the world suggest that autism should be counted through the proper intervention. Other than the contribution of Uta Frith, there are considerable development and understanding in the last two decades, which was done by the researchers and the organisations like the National Autistic Society in combating the problem of autism.
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