Therapeutic agents refer to substances with the ability to produce curative effects during a disease state. These substances are consumed due to the presence of disease-causing microorganisms, chemical substances, radiation or presence of any deficiency disease which could in turn result to a more advanced form of the disease (Farlex, 2017). Dental therapeutic involves preventing and restoring dental care inpatient experiencing dental problems. The therapeutic agents used in dentistry include anti-fungal, anti-viral, oral bacterial infection controls, aesthetics as well as anti-inflammatory.
Nutritional supplements refer to the dietary supplements which are intended to supply nutrients which may not be consumed in sufficient quantities. Such supplements include but not limited to- vitamins, minerals, amino acids, proteins and other nutritional substances such as fish oils, probiotics and glucosamine. The nutritional products are usually ingested in the form of liquid, capsule or tablets to enable the individual is the subject to acquire sufficient nutrients for the effective functioning of the body cells. These nutritional values ensure that individuals get the recommended intake of essential vitamins, minerals and other essential nutrients necessary for optimal body functioning, full health and vitality. Nutritional supplements supplement to a healthy and nutritious diet but do not necessarily replace poor diet or poor eating habits.
On the other hand, over-the-counter medications refer to the medicines bought at the medical stores without a prescription. They are in other words termed as the OTC or the nonprescription medicine. These medications are effective and safe if the descriptions of the medication are clearly adhered to as prescribed by healthcare practitioners. Over the counter, drugs can help with minor muscle, and joint problem, headaches, fever, cold, sore throats, cough, allergies, eye problems, pains sprain as well as arthritis. However, these drugs can have serious side effects, especially when consumed for a long period or in high doses. The commonly used over-the-counter drugs include antihistamine pills, ibuprofen, menthol throat lozenges, and acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs- just to mention a few.
Prescription drugs refer to strong medications which should be prescribed by medical personnel in order to be dispensed. In contrast, over -the –counter medications can be bought without any prescriptions. Although medical personnel clearly prescribe the prescription drugs, they have been prone to misuse and abuse and in turn causing deaths and addiction, especially among teenagers.
Dentists may prescribe various drugs based on the patient condition. For instance, drugs such as anesthetics, analgesics and intravenous sedation are commonly applied in dental care to help ease and control dental pains. Other types of dentistry drugs include corticosteroids which reduce mouth redness and gum problems, chlorhexidine which is an antibiotic used to reduce plaque and gingivitis, antiseptics which reduce mouth odour. Antifungals which stop the oral thrush and spread of candida fungus, fluoride which prevent tooth decay, as well dry mouth dental medications which reduce moth dryness by stimulating the production of saliva. However, medications such as the fluorides expose the user to the risk of allergy and can cause teeth staining (Rotskoff, 2016). Chlorhexidine drugs can also cause tartar on teeth and hence stain them too. Most of these dental care drugs are bound to have adverse side effects to the user especially if consumed for a long period of time or in the wrong dosage as prescribed by the health professor.
Modern health practitioners have adopted a patient-centred approach that emphasises on considering the patients’ medical history as well as collaborative decision making with the patient. Psychiatrists tailor their medication recommendations on the basis of the patient needs and concerns. Through considering the patient’s past medical history, medical practitioners are able to gain information on the risk factors and also generate insights on the efficacy and adverse effects of various medicines on the patients. Therefore, tracking the medical history is vital in the identification of rare but adverse effects and for determining the effective patient treatment plans and best practices in ensuring high-quality patient care. The information gained is used in the formulation of a diagnosis and patient care. Most drug histories are limited to the history of presenting complaints, names and allergies. The generated data is used in formulating lengthy details on the patient’s medical history in order to formulate a management plan for various illnesses.
Productive and profitable dentistry is built on principles. These principles guide the dentists in prescribing medication to their desired clients. Prescribing dental medicine must take into consideration the risks and benefits posed to the patient. Psychosocial interventions should also be considered before any prescription, For instance; the dentist should be guided by the principle of honesty. This is to ensure that they tell the truth about the services they are rendering to their clients. They should also not harm their clients by observing the nonmaleficence principle. Respect is also upheld in dental care to help ensure that the patient’s opinions are highly respected as well as the confidentiality of their records. Dentists should also not always consider medications as their only therapeutic strategy but should also advise clients on other means of living a disease free life, for instance through dieting and consumption of minerals and nutrients to ensure healthy teeth.
The key principles applied in prescription by dentists include pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. The pharmacodynamics principles applied in dentistry involves analysis and study of how various drugs affect the patients ((Antonaccio Gomoll 2008). In this essence, dentists are in a position to understand the fate of the body of the patient and hence be able to explain the link between the dose and the patient response. On the other hand, pharmacokinetics refers to the application of pharmacokinetic principles to ensure safety and effective therapeutic management of medicine among patients. It involves analysis of how the body reacts to the drugs and the extent to which the body tissues utilise the drug. All these principles are key to ensuring patient safety and treatment.
Farlex. (2017). Therapeutic agent. Retrieved from https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/therapeutic+agent
Antonaccio MJ and Gomoll A. (2008). Pharmacology, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of sotalol. – PubMed – NCBI. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2403731
Rotskoff K. (2016, April 26). Medications Used in Dentistry on RxList.com. Retrieved from https://www.rxlist.com/dental_medications/drugs-condition.htm