Academic Master

Laws and International Laws

the US policy-making agenda and evaluation challenges


Identification of problem and construction of Agenda

There are some problems within the U.S., but few of them are enlisted in the policy-making agenda. The questioning group in power can bring this issue to the policy agenda. For instance; a major political campaign donor encounters a problem and can move the point more quickly and conveniently onto the policy agenda rather than a small group without considerable political support. Public spotlight in another case, can also address the issue and be brought to the policy agenda by the public outcry.

The media, too, plays its role in triggering the problem. For example, the 9/11 incident in the United States brought national security, terrorism, and relations with Iraq to the forefront of International and National policy agendas (Policy Formation & Policy Implementation, 2018). The above matters must be agenda items that further the policy. Further discussion will cover the approach to the problem, sticking with the agenda, challenges to face, and how it would get legitimized.


Formulation of Policy: second stage

It consists of a body of policymakers discussing the matters and concerns and suggesting legal and right approaches to resolve problems. The policy chose to solve the issue based on two elements: 1). The policy should be a valid and legitimate way of resolving the issue in the best possible manner. 2). Policies should be politically feasible (Hajer & Wagenaar, 2003). Hence, the policy formulation process consists of analysis.
A process of Policy Adoption: third-phase.

Relevant bodies of Government tend to adopt the formulated policies to put into effect. Influencing factors can affect the plan’s adoption; political influences can also be used to determine what procedures are to be adopted. Favorable and unbiased media also provides a forum where debate for the adoption of the plan takes place, enhancing the likelihood of acceptance of the policy proposal.

Implementation of Policy: fourth-stage

Policies that have been adopted have now been put into effect. Implementation of the policy refers to the enactment of planned solutions. The policy successfully implemented comprises three criteria: 1). The policy creator communicates with the governing body within the bureaucracy, which has the power to legislate it. 2). The policy must not be ambiguous and must be easily interpreted and communicated. 3). Resources used for implementation must integrate with current processes without causing any disruption or conflict.



There are various standards for evaluating the policies implemented. They can be assessed informally as stories and anecdotes according to uncritical analysis, focusing on feedback, etc. Formal and scientific research provides empirical evidence to determine the strategies, but it is time-consuming.

Challenges to Assess Policies

Some policies are difficult to assess. Some plans have conceptual long-term goals, such as the quality of healthy air, and it is difficult to determine whether they will be universally accepted. Some policies also contain multiple objectives that may be incompatible, and few of them are accomplished (The Policy-Making Process Boundless Political Science, 2018).


Hajer, M. A., & Wagenaar, H. (2003). Deliberative policy analysis: understanding governance in the network society. Cambridge University Press.

The Policy-Making Process Boundless Political Science. (2018). Retrieved 7 February 2018, from

The Public Policy Process: Problem Recognition, Policy Formation & Policy Implementation – Video & Lesson Transcript | (2018). Retrieved 9 February 2018, from



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