Exercise and the physical activities have a beneficial effect on the body of the human being. Physical activities are any kind of activities by which the body burns calories. Physical activities require the control of the cardiovascular and respiratory movement which gives the capability for sustaining the movement over the extended periods. Due to frequent training, the physiologic system adopts the changes which increase the body’s capacity and its efficiency. The main purpose of the respiratory and the cardiovascular system is to give the body nutrients and the oxygen so that the carbon dioxide should be get rid of the body. The anaerobic system provides the energy in the absence of the oxygen. However, the children anaerobic system is not fully developed due to which they need to rely on the aerobic system, as the kids have the lower amount of the lactic acid during the exercise as compared to the adults. Moreover, children use a lot amount of the aerobic energy. The main energy source is by the conversion of the fat into the energy during the light exercises. But coaches should consider that when the exercise gets intense, then the muscle and the blood glycogen are being used for the provision of the energy for that exercise. Children do not have the equal amount of glycogen stores in their body and also don’t have the same conversion ability during exercise to convert it into the energy.
Moreover, the kids are being designed for less intense type exercise because of the difference in the size as compared to adults. Due to this difference, their internal organs are also comparatively small. As the blood controls the amount of the oxygen which is being transmitted in and out the body during the exercise, and that amount of oxygen is being controlled by either the heart rate or by the amount of the blood being pumped with each heartbeat. Children have the ability for the increase of the amount of the blood that is being pumped by each heartbeat, but their heart can’t be able to carry the same amount of the oxygen as compared to the adults. By this difference, the amount of the oxygen that is being carried will not increase much in children even if there is an increase in the amount of the blood being pumped.
Children have a high heart rate as compared to the adults but have the less amount of the blood in each heartbeat. During exercise, their heartbeat increases and this results in the slight increase in the amount of the blood being pumped. So the children can only increase their heart rate due to intense exercise, as they don’t have much anaerobic level development in them. Exercise short-term circulatory effects include the decrease of oxygen level within the blood, as a result of which the heart rate increases (Brooks, Fahey, and White, 1996). As the exercise gets intense, the long-term effect of the circulatory system includes the thickening of the cardiac muscle which results in the increased volume of the heart. Due to this increase, the more blood gets pumped into the body per minute, and oxygen is delivered faster to the muscles for the children and both adults. Coaches should be aware that the pushing of heart rate at a higher level have no danger of health, but needs regular practice to increase it.
Children need more amount of the oxygen for their body muscles to perform well during the exercise as they lungs are smaller than the adults. When an adult breath in oxygen due to the larger capacity of the lungs the more oxygen gets into their body. However, Children needs to breathe faster per minute in order to fulfill the amount of oxygen that the body muscle requires (Grogan, 2016). So coaches need to help a child to increase their breath per minute for fulfilling the deficiency of the oxygen during the exercise.
In case of thermoregulation, the body gets heated up as someone does the exercise. In the children, about 20% of the energy is being converted into the work while the rest of the energy results in heating of the body. Unlike adults, children don’t sweat enough due to which their body don’t release the temperature as they have smaller skin surface area (Donnelly, Hillman, Castelli, 2016). So coaches need to train the children in the evening when the temperature is comparatively low, so the body of the children will maintain a normal temperature. Moreover, the nervous system controls the functions of the body. The body tries to maintain a stable weight as the exercise helps to balance the energy intake. Children constantly developing their nervous system and this nervous system is being strengthened by performing more and more exercises as the maturation rate is being increased by doing an exercise again and again (Members.itkd.co.nz, 2018). Children bones are more flexible than the adults and their bones mainly break on side of the bone. Children mostly use their arms for avoiding any kind of fall which results in mostly the breakage of the wrist and the elbow. So coaches should need to develop the technique of landing on feet for the children as the feet absorb much of the fall and not easily break.
Brooks, G., Fahey, T., and White, T., 1996. Physiologic responses and long-term adaptations to exercise. Exercise physiology: human bioenergetics and its applications. 2nd ed. Mountain View (CA): Mayfield Publishing Co, pp.61-77.
Donnelly, J.E., Hillman, C.H., Castelli, D., Etnier, J.L., Lee, S., Tomporowski, P., Lambourne, K. and Szabo-Reed, A.N., 2016. Physical activity, fitness, cognitive function, and academic achievement in children: a systematic review. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 48(6), p.1197.
Grogan, S., 2016. Body image: Understanding body dissatisfaction in men, women, and children. Taylor & Francis.
Members.itkd.co.nz. (2018). International Taekwon-Do Essay. [online] Available at: http://members.itkd.co.nz/reference/essays/5-differences.php [Accessed 21 Apr. 2018].