An empire basically entails central state which has hold on diverse area and its population. Empires rise and spread as their power gets strengthened but it do fall as soon as it loses control over the territory or is conquered by someone else. As these empires are large so they are usually reduced much smaller political and manageable units named as provinces.
While comparing the rise and development of the empires, we viewed some history and came up with some similarities and differences. Cyrus the great having hold over the Achaemenid Persian Empire developed significantly in less than 30 years and reached its highest extent within 75 years. In sixth century Roman Republic came into being but on the other hand Roman Empire didn’t reach its greatest extent till 117CE. Certain reasons came up as a cause of rise and growth. The Achaemenids, their Persian empire was built mostly through defeat of the military. The Maurya Empire in India combined religious conversions, political sabotage and military defeat in order to increase its tenure of rule. In an aggressive society, the romans, did not came to conquer the place, but they got involved in many wars. After defeating enemies, as a reward of loyalty romans offered them citizenship to some extent. Alexander the Great, known as one of the great empire builders of the history. Growth of his empire within no time placed an example for everyone how one small state can be turned into huge empire. Depicting the way how situations and events elsewhere the central state play roe in state’s success in building an empire. Philip II of Macedon, also known as father of Alexander ruled from 359 BCE to 336 BCE- was a talented commander in army and king. He created the platform for the victories of Alexander over Persia. He used threats, bribery, warfare to make his kingdom secure plus without his understanding and willpower, Alexander would not have been highlighted in the industry.
When we talk of the fall of the empires, we basically mean that principal government did not implemented its extensive power. This situation happened because government was terminated or government’s power was reduced as parts of the country has become independent of the control. As kingdoms are complicated and big, thus when we hear about their fall there must be multiple reasons rather than one cause.
Major issues historians suggested were
- Financial issues
- Societal and ethnic issues
- Ecological issues issues
- Governmental issues
Reviewing the history, before the conquest of Alexander, Achaemenid Persia had their internal conflicts plus the kingdom remain integral fir fourth to fifth centuries BCE. Conversely, the reality of the internal divisions made Persia helpless to intruders eager to make Persia out of the territory.
Alexander of Macedon occupied Persian Empire in 334 BCE, but till 330 BCE Darius III, Persian King died rumored as murdered by one of his generals. Alexander took over the power of Persia and gave the charge to the all the institutions and officials to manage his massive empire. Hence, we can observe that Alexander was taking over as a new ruler and securing the Persian Empire instead of destroying the Persian state. After death of the Alexander in 323 BCE, he was without any Heir. So the empire was distributed among the generals and thus at that point Persia collapsed and was replaced by multiple of competing states. This division was done within years.
So the main factors which played a vital role in the fall of the Achaemenid Persia were moreover military and political. Political divisions made the empire weaker military.
The reign of Guptas had control of a large Empire in northern area of India approximately from 320 CE to 550 CE. From 450 CE onwards, the Kingdom of Guptas was exposed to assaults in northwest region of Kingdom from Hephthalites- known as White Huns. Such unending invasions made the Gupta’s military and its financial resources weak thus leading to long process of decline.
A continuous grudge with White Huns made the Gupta Empire lose a great area of its territory by 500 CE. The Empire of Gupta compelled the Huns to leave the territory in 528 CE. Even though, the fiscal impact of the loss of territory and long period of fighting made the Empire of Guuptas Tired and weak. Within the next several decades, many regions were taken away from the control of the Empire of Gupta plus Vakataka Kingdom and Malwa, the neighboring states became more powerful. Till 550 CE, the empire of Gupta didn’t existed but a small area of the empire sustained for another decade. This Empire of Gupta is illustration of the regal downfall where the dominant government sustained still was not in a state to exercise its authority plus effect out there an inadequate region. The scenario can be compared with the Empire of Western Roman, whose latter king was compelled to move beyond the authority, eradicating the municipal of romans.
Factors that were seen as a major cause of the empire of Gupta were mainly economic and military. The financial issues were result of many challenges military of the empire faced. This lead to political issues as state lost the region and was deteriorated.
Furthermore, other issues include Culture. British culture was forced on colonist whereas they banned, forgotten and ignored the original culture. Economy, being of the issue in colonist was decreasing as the profit earned by the goods was taken to the Britain. Soldiers of the colonies for sake of Britain struggled and perished. Without the empire, the soldiers would not have expired or even fought. Religion one of the sensitive cause, the preachers who came along Empire compelled Christianity on colonist, banning the exercise of various religions. Disease, along with British came new viruses to other or far living colonies, finished a great lot of people due to unawareness. Theft, became one of the issue as Empire took the charge of the assets, and area of the colonies resulting in death of many native tribes like Aborigines. Similarly, Slavery was also one cause. Slaves which were Africans were sent to America to be sold.