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The Change of War Character in Terms of Autonomy and Technology from 1939-1945

Introduction

Technology played a significant role in WWII as different techniques were applied in the war, such as submarines, tanks, and communication intelligence systems. Some technologies invented and used in the war were developed during the 1920s and early 1930s (Ameen, 2017). Countries advanced technology very much in response to World War I in 1914. Wars also impacted technology commonly applied in modern life. Despite all the wars, World War 2 had an immense impact on technology and devices used to conduct the war. There was also a significant change in character and autonomy.

The Technological Fields

Countries worldwide rely on developed technology that is customized for military purposes. The different fields were well advanced, and new devices were created. The weaponry field was introduced like ships, artillery, atomic weapons, and biological chemicals. These were more advanced tools compared to World War I. They were created by countries like Germany, Russia, and France, who wanted to protect themselves from others (Ameen, 2017). There was also logistic support that was important for transporting soldiers and supplies of necessities. The military operation system was highly targeted in all research efforts to put enemies away by every country.

In early 1919 there was an announcement of no war in the next ten years to protect the economy and maintain peace (Fuller, 2018). However, the Soviet Union and Germany were not contented and cooperated on military R&D. Later on, Germany helped the Soviet Union modernize their tanks and facilitated their heavy machinery industry operation in Leningrad and Locomotive factory. During this time, other countries advanced their technological military weaponry, and in less than six years, military combat was highly developed in many countries. Modern jet fighters were flown, such as the Spitfire Mark 1, which were dangerous in the war.

Radar

The British produced the first radar system in 1935; England adopted the radar technology by 1939 and built radar networks across the south and east coast (Fuller, 2018). MIT’s radiation in the laboratory advanced radar technology. The initial role of radar was to use electromagnetic radiation for detecting weapons. The radar could send the beam of light to a pilot in the plane, and they could cause damage. The radar technology helped allied forces detect enemies. It was also crucial in guiding the civilians and detecting major weather events. Radar technology was highly developed during world-war two and is currently used in different fields.

Aircraft

Airpower was extensively used and was crucial during the war, both in strategic and tactical operations. Germany was the leading and superior in air technology, aided by introducing faster and modernized helicopters. The French had neglected the air force since they had preferred investing in ground armies. The British had some advanced fighter planes that were ineffective on the ground. Germany achieved their superiority in the air in the early 1940s, which made them develop and allowed the Luftwaffe to begin preparations for strategic bombing of Britain’s Cities (Crowley & Dawson, 2017). Most European countries also adapted the aerial bombing as compelling and gained popularity among nations. Aerial bombing was advanced into the long-range bombing, which was in other cases aided by planes. The British had long-range bomber planes called Short-Stirling designed in 1939 for strategic flights (Crowley & Dawson, 2017). These flights were meant to protect the British against any possible air attack.

The jets were also developed during the war for security measures in countries. The Heinkel He 178 was the first turbojet to be applied in the war. Later on, Germany came up with an operational jet fighter called Messerschmitt Me 262. Despite coming up with powerful jets, their air technology was blocked by technical hitches like short-lived engines and short operation time. Aircraft technology was highly developed during the WWII to meet the air demands of war. Countries previously used open cockpit aeroplanes and moved to sleek jet fighters, which were more effective during the war. There were different sleek jet fighters employed, designed for different missions. The Germans developed glide bombs first and the v-1 flying bombs, the first cruiser missile weapon. The V-2 rockets were also created by Germans and were the first ballistic missile weapons (Fuller, 2018). Later on, Germany developed Intercontinental ballistic missiles. Air technology was very influential during the second world war, and many countries like Germany and France opted to invest in air technology for warfare.

Vehicles

Initially, some restrictions were imposed on Germany upon constructing military vehicles. However, the Germans had begun to manufacture the military vehicles secretly. These vehicles had powerful technical specifications on the battlefield, unfamiliar to other European countries. On the other hand, the British developed faster light armored cruiser tanks. Unlike the French tanks, the German tanks were well equipped with radio technology (Crowley & Dawson, 2017). The German tanks allowed them to communicate throughout the battle, while French tanks were not equipped with that technology; the British developed tanks with thick protection, ideal for trench warfare. The Germans had the most potent ground machinery during the second world war. They had created powerful tanks with high energy capacity and were not vulnerable to gunfire.

Electronic, Communication, and Intelligence

Electronics were crucial during WWII and rose to prominence very first. During the First World War, the Blitzkrieg was used and proved to be very effective, with all the German tanks having a radio. Networking computer was established in ships and aircraft. There was also the introduction of radar by Britain. The Germans were very far ahead of others in the aspects of radar. Some researchers were Jews, and advanced equipment was designed to intercept communication. The Germans destroyed all the Americans and British ciphers, and they relied on their Engima coding machines, which were encrypted (Crowley & Dawson, 2017). During World War two, the German radio intelligence operations were very effective and extensive. The interception technology was the most crucial element that kept Germany ahead during the war. The Americans used electronic computer equations like the ballistic and battlefield equation in the war.

Medicine

The Second World War necessitated the development and advancement of technology in the medical field. Penicillin was among the first mass-produced medicine during the war. Mepacrine was also mainly used to prevent malaria, and morphine was also among the drugs used during wartime. Advanced technology was initiated in the production of drugs for relieving pain instantly (Crowley & Dawson, 2017). There were also equipment and devices developed to conduct surgeries to save a life during the war. The medical advancement during the war helped to treat burns and skin grafts. Tetanus immunization was also developed, and improved gas masks helped protect individuals’ health. The metal plates were also used to treat fractures during the war. Medical technology made a massive step during the war to ensure the recovery and safety of people.

The Autonomy

There has been a recent rise in concerns about autonomous weapons systems; others have focused on potential problems while others have focused on the benefits. Military planners have come up with ways to reduce military casualties and save costs while performing tasks that humans cannot do. The second world war made several banks lose their autonomy, which had to be placed under government control. The policy changed, and the change was traced to intellectual and political advancements during the interwar (Field, 2019). Some policies were also made upon using some technological tools by different countries during the first world war. Autonomy has been applied to enhance safety and peace among countries. In Europe, the tension of varying intensity leads to unresolved conflict between countries. This brought the application of autonomy to many countries to reduce war in Europe.

Autonomy proved to be a key factor worldwide, evident during the second world war. The constitution or law should establish a local autonomous status. For example, there are regions where the constitution set autonomous entities while others were set by international agreement and then incorporated into the constitution (Hubbard-Hall & O’Sullivan, 2022). Autonomous entities can also be set up through regional statutes adopted in the parliament and incorporated into the constitution in the form of organic law. This has been evident in countries like Spain, which have threaded it through the constitution. Autonomy has proved vital in different regions since the second world war.

Autonomy applies key principles of self-determination is highly recognized in all contemporary law internationally. However, there are various ambiguities in autonomy. This principle of self-determination became compulsory in 1944 with the entry into force of laws concerning human rights. This was mainly aimed at guarding people across the world. The culture, history of people, and political interests are well developed with the agreement of autonomy. Autonomy recognizes human rights at large with national law. There is also another factor on autonomy which considers international relations between nations. This happened in the case of Italy and the South Tyrol region and took measures to promote the linguistic aspect and culture. Autonomy has been significant internationally to protect the culture and history of different groups. Autonomy is regarded as a system of conflict resolution in most regions of the world.

The concept of autonomy impacted many nations, and many viewed it as a threat to the integrity of a particular region. This is a policy aimed at ensuring the integrity and respect in a state to be recognized. Autonomy helps in providing individuals and groups to enjoy their rights. The autonomy ensures there is no violation of resources to exploit weaker groups. During world war two, nations were misusing their resources and using nations that lacked defense resources (Hubbard-Hall & O’Sullivan, 2022). Countries like the USA and Germany had advanced technology and made other weaker countries defenseless. There was no clear policy to protect different groups of people. Governments continued to manufacture war aircraft, tanks, and chemical weapons, which they applied in the war without any control. The autonomy was not well established from 1939-to 1945 (East, 2020). Several regions have incorporated the concept, which has led to a positive impact.

Autonomous has brought both positive and negative impacts in different regions. There has been democracy and people’s free will in other historical areas. The people have also been able to follow their culture without any interference. These have been the significant benefits of autonomy across areas. Due to autonomy agreements, the immense power has not been directly involved in any conflict. The countries have honored the autonomy agreement; hence there has been barely any war. Autonomy has provided continued impact since 1939, and many countries and regions have acquired the concept of autonomy in handling different situations (Štolleová, 2017). The war cases have reduced significantly across many areas of the world.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the Second World War impacted technology and autonomy greatly. Technology was significantly invested in war tools, machines, military vehicles, radar, and aircraft. Germany was among the countries that used most of their assets in technological advancement between 1939-1945 for war. There was a development of potent air weapons, installed with radio for communication. There was also a well-developed tanker and fixed transmission chips that would communicate to the central station. Technology was also applied in the medical field to produce tetanus and penicillin to treat wounded soldiers and civilians. The Second World War led to the practical application of autonomy, which ensured long-lasting self-governance and peace across different regions. The war impacted autonomy and information technology greatly. As such, autonomy and technology changed significantly as a result of the equipment and approaches applied in the warfare, hence, greatly steering the globalization economy.

Reference

Ameen, M. D. I. (2017). How successful were the Allies in mobilizing technology for war, 1939-

45?. Historical Kan Periodical10(38).

Crowley, M. J., & Dawson, S. T. (Eds.). (2017). Home Fronts: Britain and the Empire at War,

1939-45. Boydell Press.

East, T. S. (2020). Anglo-American Responses to German War Technology in World War

II (Doctoral dissertation).

Field, A. J. (2019). The Productivity Impact of World War II Mobilization In The United

States. Available at SSRN 3110832.

Fuller, M. G. J. (2018). The Second World War, 1939-45: A Strategical and Tactical History.

Pickle Partners Publishing.

Hubbard-Hall, C., & O’Sullivan, A. (2022). Landscapes of intelligence in the Third Reich:

visualizing Abwehr operations during the Second World War. Journal of Intelligence

History21(1), 88-112.

Štolleová, B. (2017). Between autonomy and the Reich Administration Economic Department of

the Reich Protector’s Office (1939–1942).

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