Academic Master

Health Care

the causes behind Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is also referred to as depression. Depression is a low mood disorder that is usually experienced for two weeks transversely in most situations. Generally, complemented by the loss of interest, low self-esteem, pain without a due cause, etc., people who experience this type of disorder may experience hearing things that others cannot hear or even have some false beliefs. However, some people experience a separate depression within a year period, whereas other depressive disorders may occur on a regular basis. About 3%, i.e., approx. Two hundred sixteen million of the world’s population is affected by the major depressive disorder, whereby females are double affected in comparison to males. The cause of this disorder is said to be changes in the environment, certain medications, family history, substance abuse, and chronic health problems, whereby 40% is related to genetics. Records show that between 2-7% of the adults experiencing depression mostly die of suicide, whereas 60% of those who die of suicide are said to have depression or another form of mood disorder.

In this study, I will analyze four articles that explain particular causes that exist that lead to clinical depression, considered the most complicated form of human depression. The first article explains that block disorder contains fundamental disturbances that change affect the mood to depression (with or even without assisted nervousness) or even to delight (“ICD-10 Version: 2010”, 2018). Ideally, the disposition change is mostly conveyed with a variation in the entire level of commotion. Most of the experienced signs are subordinate to and even effortlessly agree to the perspective of activity and mood variation. This disorder is always regular, and the start of distinct incidents is often associated with traumatic situations or an event.

The second article discusses clinical depression as a common but severe type of disorder. Categorically, this article analyzes the various forms of depression that are slightly different but may develop under some unique circumstances (Richards & Hara, 2014). This includes Psychotic depression, Persistent depressive disorder, Seasonal affective disorder, Psychotic depression, and bipolar disorder. The study goes ahead to discuss the signs and symptoms, The risk factors, treatment therapies, Medications, psychotherapies, and brain stimulation therapies.

Ideally, the study talks about clinical trial research that outlines new ways that are required to detect diseases and conditions that include depression. According to the discussion, the participants tend to receive treatment that may include new drugs or even a combination of drugs, new ways, new devices, or procedures to be applied to the existing treatment. Mostly, the participants are the aid to enjoy the benefit of the part of the trial and should always be aware of the primary purpose of a clinical trial, which is to gain specific knowledge so that others may get more assistance in the future.

The third study specifically points out suicide as a concern to the clinicians who work with clients who experience a major depressive disorder (MDD) (Link, B. G. 1987). The study reviews the data regarding the prevalence of suicidal behavior among those with depressive disorder. The articles hence examine the risk factors for suicidal ideation, death, and self-injury. It also provides an empirical overview of the treatment, thus aiming to decrease the risk factor. Therefore, the study explains to the reader a lot of wealth of information that relates to suicidal risk and death risk. Most probably, the treatment method reliably leads to a decrease in the suicide death that comes from depression. Indeed, a variety of challenges tend to confront the practitioners who work with suicidal clients, including the turnout and fatigue litigation and anxiety. And even humanitarian assistance to those with risk factors. Therefore, emphasizing great approaches that will reduce the loss of their lives through depression that comes from suicide.

The fourth study analyzes the functionality and the well-being of the results from depressed people in comparison to chronic general medical sickness (Hayset al, 1995). The study talks about depression as a unique factor that is related to the limits of well-being and the functionality that is equal to or even greater than those of chronic and overall conditions in medicating, like arthritis and diabetes. The study carried out some analysis for three-year observational research. This research was held in the year 1970 for adult outpatients experiencing depression, heart failure, hypertension, diabetes, and recent myocardial infarction. However, the study gives results that indicated that the limitations and the functionality and well-being had improved in the depressed people, although the restrictions were worse or similar to the people attributed the chronic medical illness. Hence, more severely, the depressed patients had improvement and more functioning, although the initially depressed people without the depressive disorder experienced substance persistence kind of limitations. The research indicated that the depressed patients had a long and substantial decrement in various functional domains and well-being that is equal or greater to those of the patients with chronic medical illness.

The Fifth study examines the effectiveness and safety of the two medications, i.e., riluzole ketamine when treating depressive disorder treatment resistant (research, 2016). The study furthermore cross-examines the efficacy of the approved FDA drug referred to as lamotrigine when decreasing various potential side effects that are associated with ketamine. Hence, the study investigates riluzole, a glutamate agent, in treatment-resistant patients who indicate critically maintained reply in a distinct dosage for the intravenous (IV) racemic ketamine. Fifty ketamine responders have to be randomized to placebo or riluzole for a one-month period, double-blind, randomized, and continuation phase study.

In conclusion, these studies have analyzed situations and factors that make clinical depression considered the most complicated form of human depression. Like any other disorder, Depression is a high risk to the life of an individual, and hence, much action needs to be taken by the community. Patients who experience this depression need attention, and adequate care by persons of goodwill to make their lives come back to normal. Depressions are characterized by some discomforts like low self-esteem, poor thinking, and even loss of interest. This causes a person’s brain functionality to fail to reason responsibly, hence risking personal life into the miserable conduct of affairs. Therefore, a clinical disorder is a change in mood that lasts for weeks or months.


Hays, R. D., Wells, K. B., Sherbourne, C. D., Rogers, W., & Spritzer, K. (1995). Functioning and well-being outcomes of patients with depression compared with chronic general medical illnesses. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52(1), 11-19.

ICD-10 Version:2010. (2018). Retrieved 28 February 2018, from

Link, B. G. (1987). Understanding labeling effects in the area of mental disorders: An assessment of the effects of expectations of rejection. American Sociological Review, 96-112.

Research, C. (2016). Research Study for Major Depressive Disorder: Investigation of Glutamate Medications – Full Text View – Retrieved 28 March 2018, from

Richards, C. S., & O’Hara, M. W. (Eds.). (2014). The Oxford handbook of depression and comorbidity. Oxford University Press.



Calculate Your Order

Standard price





Pop-up Message