Academic Master


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In the start of the risk assessment, there is a general statement about the information system that resembles like a scope of the system. That does not include the proper description of the information system.

The information system will be better described by data flow diagram, description or layout, assist in determining the key areas and the requirements. Moreover the detail description of information system set the boundaries for the information security management system.

The information systems have not been registered to any office yet. However, the distribution of the information system’s modules should be defined with their particular responsibilities. This document should be included in the security report. Through this information, organization can perform activities related to information security more effectively.

RMF Step 2: Select Security Controls

There are some areas of the HBWS’s information system where some security controls are defined. Such areas are the small hospital grant tracking system and windows NT platforms. However, for the networking components and remote login, common security controls are undefined.

Common security controls should be carefully identified and monitored within the information systems.

These new identified security controls will assist the organization to identify areas which needed more security. These common security controls should be documented in the security plan.

There are limited number of security controls mentioned before the common controls. These are not enough for the strong information security management systems.

The identified and selected security controls should be mentioned in the security plan.

As fitting security controls have not been appropriately distinguished, no strategy to screen the security controls exists. An all-around archived arrangement for observing security controls recognizes regions where embraced controls might be excessively powerless or excessively prohibitive. This strategy ought to be incorporated into the security report of the security design.

A security plan has not been created for the association’s data frameworks and hence can’t be surveyed. A normal and careful audit of the security plan ought to be embraced by administration, or an administration affirmed party, to decide ampleness and pertinence. This audit should bring about conceivable upgrades or confirmation of the present security act and add it into the security report.

RMF Step 3: Implement Security Controls

No controls that are characterized by a security plan are right now being actualized by the association. Using controls that have been characterized and recorded inside a security plan enable the association to screen, survey, and enhance the chose controls. This additionally secures the information systems.

Should the picked controls be archived, as well as the real utilize and execution ought to likewise be reported in the security plan. This can guarantee that the controls are being completed effectively and gives an underlying inspecting point for the control.

RMF Step 4: Assess Security Controls

Presently there is no arrangement or technique to survey the chose security controls. This will give the association a guide to get ready for, and complete, an evaluation.

The evaluation for the security control ought to be executed according to the plan said in the evaluation plan. The evaluation for the security control will check if the degree for the security control has been secured amid the usage or not. Additionally it is best to do the evaluation for the control ahead of schedule into the usage procedure so that any provisos, shortcomings or vulnerabilities could be found and followed up on. This keeps any  late disclosure of issues causing lot of rework for the group.

A security assessment report is created in view of the yields of the security assessment process. This report is utilized to tell upon any shortcomings, vulnerabilities and escape clauses in the security controls. At the point when the report is displayed for the assessment of security control, for every security controls the data significant to adequacy and vulnerability of security controls ought to be available in the report.

Like examined before the assessment report for the security controls will bring up the vulnerabilities and the shortcomings. In view of the shortcomings recognized a plan for the remediation for the vulnerabilities should be distinguished and recorded. The remediation plan for various security controls numerous or may not be same and when the remediation plan for the recognized vulnerabilities are characterized it should detail the different advances that need to gone for broke postured by the vulnerabilities. This remediation activities characterized are utilized by the different framework proprietors, suppliers and engineers as a guide. Likewise one vital thing to note here is that this procedure ought not be simply pointed towards discovering issues yet rather it ought to be arrangement situated process.

RMF Step 5: Authorize Information System

After starting restorative activities have been done in view of the security assessment, a plan to give proceeded or long haul remediation is required. This is to guarantee the association is following a procedure to remedy, or moderate, all zones of worry from the assessment. The association has remedial activities prescribed in light of the underlying danger assessment, yet no plan to make long haul move. This documentation ought to be incorporated into the plan of activity.

The association has not particularly distinguished a mindful get-together to present the security bundle to. This ought to be recorded inside the ISMS. This individual, or gathering, would then be able to utilize the security bundle, including security report, assessment, and plan of activity, to settle on instructed risk choices.

Risk is something that is inborn with authoritative process and methodology and they should be appropriately decided and reported. To this association needs to play out a nitty gritty risk administration for the diverse techniques and procedures that are available. The procedure of risk administration ought to be deliberately done and following ought to be secured: assessment, resistance, alleviation and observing.

Like specified before the resilience level for all the risk will likewise be reported. Resilience level for a risk decides the level to which the association is prepared to acknowledge that risk. Be that as it may, AO will have the last specialist on whether the resistance level for the risk would be acknowledged or not. However, before AO considers on this choice he would take an assortment of variables.

RMF Step 6: Monitor Security Controls

The evaluations of changes that effects the information systems has not been completely done. Security consequences should be examine by the change management and added into the evaluation report of information security management systems. The negative consequences can be minimize due to underlying changes.

There should be regular evaluation of security controls to confirm that they are according to the requirements of the information system and organizational goals. However no policy is provided by the organization to determine which group of security controls should be evaluated.

As the evaluation of current security controls are needed, similarly the actions which are taken according to those evaluations should also be assessed. Evaluation of security controls sometimes can show that they no longer needed by the organization. The corrective actions should be approved.

No the organization has not revised or refreshed the parts of information security management systems according to the results of ongoing monitoring. By maintaining the policy up to date , it ensures that security controls are also up to date and corrective actions are also accurate. Hence the reviewing process is quick and effective.

The officials related security status reports are not identified by the organization yet. This results in ineffective completed reports. By appointing someone who is responsible of reviewing security report can assure the effectiveness of the corrective actions, monitor change activities and provide other expertise in the field of  information security.


COBIT is one of the powerful structure as compared to ISO 2002, NIST and ITIL. It designs or plans major IT processes in a way that enables higher management of the businesses to profitably exhibit the rules, regulations and procedures.

ITIL assist the businesses to organize the IT resources and contribution by providing best practices to achieve the required goals.

ISO 27002 is a set of best practices for an information security implementation system.

NIST essential for the central bodies in the U.S for the conformity of security controls which are linked to national security.


COBIT used by business executives to exhibit major rules, regulations and procedures.

ITIL mostly used by the U.K governing bodies.

ISO 27002 is used by the IT departments of the organizations.

NIST utilized by the U.S government to achieve the ISMS needs.


COBIT is accepted in all over the world and it is kept updated according to the latest technology as it is managed by the information systems audit and control association.

ITIL used by the U.K government and beneficial for the companies of the U.K. It increases the efficiency and economy by increasing the visibility into and the management of internal processes.

ISO 27002 enables the system managers to determine and resolve the gaps between communication or reporting.

NIST can be customize by any organization which intended to use this standard according to their business nature.


COBIT usually creates gaps in coverage.

ITIL lacks specific implementation details.

ISO 27002 is limited in scope as compared to other standards.

NIST is also limited in scope and can lead to gaps in coverage or reporting.

Certification and accreditation:

COBIT has four level of certification:

  1. Certified Information Systems Auditor Learn more about CISA (CISA)
  2. Certified Information Security Manager Learn more about CISM (CISM)
  3. Certified in the Governance of Enterprise IT (CGEIT)
  4. Certified in Risk and Information Systems Control (CRISC)

ITIL has four levels of certifications: foundation, intermediate, expert and master.

ISO 27002 is associated with the standard ISO 27001 and provides the certification for organizations.

NIST does not provide any certifications.



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